Scythian Vocabulary and Names

Based on the works of Gyula Meszaros
(Scyth, Hattic, Hittite, Kartvelian langs,Caucasus Lang)
Additions on Uralic, Sumerian, Hurrian, Hungarian by Fred Hamori
Additions on Turkic from Umit Ertim, and Marc Hubey
Additions on Chuvash from Elana Romanova

Language Abreviations:
Kür=Kürin,
aba=abazak,
cher=cherkes,
abc=abchaz/abhaz
min=mingrel,
tem=temirgoi,
khar=kartwel languages

A short historical introduction of the Scythians select Scytha.htm


Basic words and word particles

a = pronoun demonstrative, pointing pronoun?, the- "/Scyth
a- = pronoun demonstrative /Hatti
a- = the /Pakhy
a = the /Hungarian
a-da =the father/Scyth (part of male names also
"Okta-mas-a-da-s"/Herodotus

da =father /Hatti
da, de =father , family/Kab
da=father /chechen
adda=father /Sumerian
atta=father /Hittite
attai=father /Mitani
atta=father/Elamite
atan=father/Dravidian
ata, adam=father /Turkic
ata=father /Uralic
also in a few I.E. languages (Latin, Gothic)

ar = men, army /Scythian
ar =army /Abchaz
eri = ? /Georgian
er-im= men, army /Sumerian
er =men /Turkic
ur =lord, from leading male /Hungarian
uros=leading male /Uralic
iuri =lord /Hurrian
"ar-po-xa-i (s) =army/men +place/land+ruler-of"/Herodotus 2nd son of Targitaos
"ar-po"=military camp, arpad=a Hurrian city state.

ari =one /Scyth (as in Ari-ma-spu=one eyed/Herodotus)
ar =one /Lezg
-ar =? /Sevan
erthi =one /Georgian
ur =lord, (prime?) /Hungarian
"Ari-ma-s-p-u"=one-where- the light-comes out /Meszáros interpretation?
Herodotus interprets Arimaspu as "one-eyed-(men)"

hur- =gold ?
hurasu =gold /Akkadian
hiaruhhe=gold /Hurrian
_arany =gold /Hungarian
zarana =gold /Iranian
ap-arany=refined gold/Dravidian

bla =eye /Scyth
b-la=eye /Hatti
ble =eye/Pakhy
bla, la, [a]la=eye/Abchaz
lá-t=sees /Hungarian
be-lát=to see into, come to know/accept /Hungarian
bámul =to gawk at/Hungarian
lá =force a way into (to see), to look after, to know /Sumerian

i=this/Scyth
e, e-t =this /Uralic, Dravidian
a-ti =this /Hurrian

ia =woman, wife? /Scyth
ias, ian =pre-Helene female names
yá-ny, lány =girl /Hungarian
alani =lady /Hurrian
ge=girl, geme =woman /Sumerian (no Y or I so substitutes g)
la- =girl /Dravidian

ka=hand/Scyth
ka=hand /Hatti
*ka=arm, hand, craft /Pakhy
k`a=hand/Chechen
xe =hand/Lezg
kéz, kacso =hand, kar=arm /Hungarian
kati=hand/Uralic
kati=hand/Akkad
kis-ib=hand, fist, to seal /Sumerian (also su)
kIs,qIs=to squeeze, to hold, i.e. kol kIs (shake hands)./Turk
kissar= arm-hand /Hittite (from Hattic)

kati =protector, king, royal "hand+place upon"/Scyth (ex: Katiari)
ka-a-ti, ka-te-e, kat-ta =king /Hatti
[ka]-tas (nom) =king /Hittite -Hrozny
_adal=king /Hurrian
hat-al-om=power of rule, might etc/Hungarian
hat-ár=border, extent of rule/effect/Hungarian
fej-EDEL-em=prince, ruler "chief/head+king+characteristical/like"
kuduru=border stone /Messopotamian
-adar, catar=border/Dravidian

arun =sea (feminine ) un may simply be mother/Scyth [Plinius]
arun =sea /Hatti
ár =flood /Hungarian from *sar /Uralic
"Te-ma-arun-Vd-a =the mother sea being /Plinius "matrem maris"

-ca =place /Scyth
-kol =tent, living space /Scyth
-ka =place /Hatti
gul=tent /Hatti
-ki =place, town /Sumerian
-hely =place, also town suffix /Hungarian
hál =to rest, to sleep, nap/Hungarian
Kol-ozs-vár, Kal-ocsa, etc /Hungarian cities
"Kol-ax-ais"="tent/place+ruler (over)"/Meszaros version /Herodotus 3rd son of Targitaus

Vd =predicate element, to be /Scyth
Vš =predicate element, to be/Hatti
Vš =predicate element, /Pakhy

gi =center,inside, inner /Scyth
Ar-gi-m-pa-s "men/army+inner-lands" /Herodotus
-gi- =locative infix "above" /Scyth
gi =heart, inner, ?lap /Pakhy
gu =heart /Abchaz
gu=interior parts, central, stomack, /Kap
ha'š 4=abdomen, back /Sumerian
köz=common, /Hungarian
közép=center /Hungarian < uralic *kitepp
has =abdomen /Hungarian <Uralic kas'=swelling,hump,back
kas =swelling, karin=abdomen /Turk
heso =navel /Japan
ég =sky =above /Hungarian (supposed to derive from FU *sanke [nk>g]
šanne =weather /Lapp from *sanke
gi-, -gi- =over, above /Pakhy
an =above, sky /Sumerian ank>an?
"Tar-GI-ta- " = weather god+above+be
"Tar-Xu-ta" = weather god+ son +be/of (son of Zeus/TAR, father of the Scythians)

ku =boy,son /Scyth
k`o,a =son/Pakhy
qo =son /Kab
k`o =son /Šap
xva, xi =son /Ku"r
ogul? /Mongol?Turk
köl-ök =young child, pup /Hungarian
In old Asia Minor male names 'xos'
Nimrod the son of KUS? Kassites, etc.
Kol-ax (is) may in fact be related to this also, the 3rd son of Targitaus.

*kus =iron/Scyth ?
gus-kin =gold??/Sumerian
*kuc'e, *kus'e =iron /Cherkes
ghuc^e=iron /Aba, Sap.

G`uc, ', h`uc, '=iron /Kabard
ku-si-i =of bronze /Khaldi
qu-ba =iron/Kar.
uu: c^e'=iron /Pakhy
kés =knife /Hungarian
kuas >juoase>uase > base =iron /Samoyed
kuas>uas>vas =iron /Hungarian
vaski=copper /Finn
ves=tinn/Vogul
Originally the use of iron & steel was known by the Hittites and Hurrians
and even their Assyrian neighbors did not use it for a long time. The new
white metal was more valuable than gold for a long time. Hence its association
to gold?

la, lo = folk, peoples, army <multitude?> /Scyth
la =army /Hatti
lu-lu =men, people /Sumerian

le-gény=young man/Hungarian
lo-fu =the chief of the people/Late Hun (China)
lo-fö =chief/Transylvanian Hungarian
"Sco-lo-ti" =ruler(of)+people+be(ing)
"Sco-lo-pi-tu (us) =ruler(of)+people+

li =from god, god /Scyth
lil =god of the atmosphere, chief earthly god/Sumerian
lég =atmosphere, lélek=soul,spirit/Hungarian
*lewle =breath,spirit/Uralic
ál-d =blessing (of God) /Hungarian
alad=good spirit (male) /Sumerian 

Leip- =beloved (of god), royal house ( as in Leip-ox-is)/Scyth
"Leipo-xa-i(s)" =the royal house-ruler -of "/Herodotus, 2st son of Targitaos
lipo =royal house "beloved (of god)"/Hatti
lipa =name of a Hittite city
lipiš, libiš =core, heart, (the abode of the spirit)/Sumerian
lép =spleen, milt /Hungarian lVppe = milt/Uralic
lep =to cover, inundate, shelter, screen, protect, surprise/Hungarian
lepedö=coverlet/Hungarian
leppâ =tent of the most rudimentary construction/Lapp
levaš =roof, shelter, open shed, coverlet, lid /Cheremis
levedä- =to cover/Cheremis
l'ip- =to cover, roof in/Votjak
lip- =to cover /Vogul

Levedi =9th century Hungarian ruler, believed to be a "protector"of the marches
between Kazars and Magyars, offered a royal Kazar wife by Kazar Kagan.


horse in Scythian is unknown
luo, leu, lehu /Kab
ulak /Kauk. /Klapr. VMC.II, 359
uluki /Georgian
uloqi-cxeni /Min
lu =horse /Vogul
lau, lox=horse /Ostjak
lov, lo=horse /Hungarian

saddle Scythian name is unknown
ud: -nŕgu =part of saddle /Pakhy
unagiri =saddle/Georgian
unageri, onangeri /Min
ingir /Svan
hungir /Sevan
nugur , nür /Chechen
nyereg =saddle /Hungarian ??<< nyug =rest +ur >> nyur-eg?/Munkacsi AKE487-8.

-ma =negative particle /Scyth
-ma =negative particle /Hurrian
-ma =netative particle /Turkic
-ma =negative particle /Arabic
ma- =locative, to be (at) /Scyth
Gog in the land of Ma-gog =referst to the Scyths of Anatolia (ma=land/place) /Bible

ma-, -ma- =interrogative, who?, where?/Hatti
ma-t =where is, ma=who? /Pakhy
manu =earth, land /Dravidian
ma =locative (where), ma-da=land of /Sumerian
me =to be /Sumerian
me-=interrogative particle /Hungarian
ma =land, place /FinnUgor
me-gye=county/Hungarian
ma-ti=town, part of a town/Japanese
ma =country, land/Japan
ma- =ground, land, country/Finn, Est
mü=ground, earth/Cheremis
ma =earth, land, place/Vogul

ma = great mother,mother /Scyth
ma =common name in Anatolia for the prehistoric Mothergoddes
ama =mother /Sumerian
eme = mother /Uralic
also in I.E. languages.
"Te-MA-arun-da" =the mother sea source /Plinius "Sea Goddess"

na =mother /Scyth
na-a =mother /Hatti
ne, a:ne' =mother /Pakhy
n`e =mother /Aba
an =mother /Abchaz
ane =genetrix /Kabar
anya=mother, anyag =matter /Hungarian
eneh=cow /early Hungarian
ana =mother /Ural Altaic

-ni, -na =locative, place names /Scyth
-n =genetive element /Scyth
-n =genetive /Ural Altaic
-n =genetive /Sumerian (according to some researchers)
-nak =genetive /Hungarian
-nél =at (locative suffix) /Hungarian
ná =to be with /Sumerian
-ni- locative terminal infix/Sumerian

-o, -u, -i =participle building element /Scyth
-u =participle building element /Hatti
-o, -ö =participle (one who is/does ) /Hungarian
"Ka-t-i" =one who protects, king. As in Katiari.
u =like this, as this /Sumerian

pada =leader (pa=determinative+da=leader) /Scyth (ex: 'Artimpada)
Ar-pada=leader of the army/men /Scyth
paše =duke, head, principle /Kab
bas =head, pasa=type of military leader /Turk
*pa=head, chief /Uralic + *ed'e=lead/Uralic
Ár-pád=the commander in chief & later king of Hungary/896AD
patesi= priest ruler /Sumerian
Erpat =the clan chief of the gods, early title of rulers of Egypt/ Egyptian

pa-pa =weather god, father of gods, father? /Scyth
baba =ruler, lord /Old Bulgar
papai(os) =father of gods, Zeus /Herodotus
fö =[p>f] chief, head, apa=father, apó =old man /Hungarian
aba =father, leader /Sumerian
aba =father /Semitic

po, pa =land, place /Scyth (A-pia=earth (goddess))
api =land, earth, earth goddess /Scyth , Herodotus
apie ="ackerfeld"/Chechen
fö-d > föld=earth, land /Hungarian [p>f]
fed =to cover/Hungarian

po, p'ha =daughter /Scyth
pxu =daughter /šap
O-po-in=name of a Scythian queen [ Herodotus]

ra =dark, black /Scythian
ra =black /Hatti KUB II 2 II.
ka-ra=black /Turkic
pa-RA-la-ti =Black heads, common people, ruled by Kolaxis.
pa-rea-tak-(eni) =Mede tribe
pa-ra-szt=peasants <originally the common workers/landless /Hungarian

ri =spring, source /Scythian
uro =well /Scythian
ú-ra =well/Hatti
uor =a pit /Chechen
ri, a-ri =well, spring /Hittite , Sturt.54, 70
er-ed =originate, spring forth /Hungarian
ür-eg =a pit, a hollow in the ground /Hungarian

s = light /Scyth
"ari-ma-s-pu" =one, where the light comes out" i.e the eye/Mészaros
s,e=light, shine, white /Pakhy
Vs =the day/Pakhy
çe-, çi- =cinder, light, appear /Kab
sere =grey /F.U.
sörö =grey/Turkmen
su-gár =sunbeam "gar/kor=big"/Hungarian
sü-t =shines (the sun)/Hungarian
si+ gara =ray/light+big /Sumerian
szé-n =coal /Hungarian
szi-n=color /Hungarian
szür-ke =grey "lightish"/Hungarian

sco =ruler, chief /scyth ( Sco-lo-ti, Sco-pa-sis, A-sku-zai)
found as part of prehelene personal names as -ska ??
sa =chief, head, upper end of something /Scyth
š-ha =sir /Hatti
ša ="haupt, selbst"/Hatti
še =head , height /Pakhy
*šxa =man /Pakhy
çh`a=hero, "dominus"/Kab
išha=sir /Hittite
sag' =head, isag'=chief/Sumerian
sa-ng=head, high, mound, pointed object/Ugrian _agy=brain/Hungarian
shang yu=king of the eastern Huns /Chinese ref
ság, szeg=mound, szék=throne, -ság=suffix of the collective/Hungarian
-sa =suffix of the collective /Hurrian
-sag, nam- =suffix, prefix of collective (there are others) /Sumerian

sin =river water, water, the Tanais river /scyth
šin =watter /Pakhy
mšyn =sea /Abchaz
šin =watter /Kub, Kai, Chür, ..
ten-ger =sea "water+great"/Hungarian [s>t, or t>s]
tav, tó =lake /Hungarian
ti =sea, river /Uralic
tlin=water /Avar
tlen=water/Kar
"Tanain ipsum Scythae Sinum vocant"/Plinius -Nat.Hist. VI,

Ta =people, men, collective/Scyth
tar-sua=fellow man /Hurrian
társ =fellow man, companion /Hungarian
társa-ság=society/Hungarian
törzs=tribe, trunk of a tree /Hungarian
-turs_ = people, etruskans /Etruskan
turk =turk people, turkut=turks (archaic)
tur-xu =sky-god(s) son , /Scythian.

In Hungarian mythology Magyar (Mag-or) is the son of the god of heaven, who
creates mankind by bringing up the seeds from the bottom of the heavenly sea.
Mag=seed, semen, self in Hungarian and Uralic Magur.

Mészáros claims that the Scythians had a triple kingship system, which is symbolized in their legend of origin and also at times when under attack three leaders arise to rally the people against the invaders. This is like the Khazars and Magyars, who each ruled a special area of society. One, the theocratic king or the ruler of the royal house, which is Leipoxis is much like the Hungarian Kende, who had no power outside of his area. There was the ruler of all the armies, the Scythian Arpoxais, who wielded considerable power over the free men, the nobles and army, this was the Gyula title whose name was Árpád, who was the Jula in Kazaria. Then there was the last ruler Kolaxis in Scythia and the Hungarian Horka, who was the ruler over the common people. The Hungarian Horka was the chief judge also. He ruled over the "black heads", the common workers, farmers, craftsmen etc. Horka? Kara=black in Turkic. The common people were called the "Pa-ra-la-ti" in Scythian. Pa-ra=land-black-people, but this also means dust, sand in Sumerian "par-im", Hungarian "por" and Turkic "bar" also. The "Pa-ra-szt" are the lowly peasants in Hungarian. The only strange thing with this explanation is that the legend seems to emphasize the importance of Kolax(is) as the chose one of god, when he alone is able to lift the various tools of gold that god rains down from above. Perhaps these too just represent the tools of the workers, which the warrior king and the theocratic king cannot and must not touch! But not so, only the first two the golden plow and yoke are work tools, the sword should be for Arpoxais and the golden goblet generally used for prayers should be for Leipoxais.

 

More Scythian gods and tribes, Part II

Scythian Gods

tar =weather & sky god, above /Scythian (as in Tar-gi-ta-us)
tar, ta-a-ru=weather god /Hatti
torr-am =sun, origin, birth /Dravidian
türe =originate /Turk
dirim =life /Turk
tarem = sky god, creator god /Ugrian
tier-mes=sky god/Lapp
ter-em-tö =creator /Hungarian
dör-ög=thunder (an attribute of the sky god)/Hungarian


Even in Christianity Hungarians had horse sacrifices when a person died, giving the animal
to the church instead of the old communal sacrifice. In the east they buried their chiefs in "kor-hány", that is in kurgans, just as the Turks, Huns and Scythians, Sarmatians.
The Scythians claimed their ancestor TAR-gitau derived from the sky god.

Hestia (fire goddess) is called Tabiti in Scythian
TaBt, toat,tut=fire in Ob Ugrian
tu"z =fire, izo=fiery hot /Hungarian
tap-lo =tinder, fire starting material/Hungarian

tabi, izi =heat,fire /Sumerian
tau =hot, fire, flame /Egypt
tuli =fire /Finn
togo =fire /Tunguz
turt= to smoke, to pull /in Chuvash
asha= heat, warmth/ Chuvash
tav =proper heat > tava =frying pan /Turkish
tüt- = to smoke /Turk
taba =frying pan /Karachay-balkar
tepsi =frying pan /Hungarian

Apollo (sun god) is called Oeto-syr(us) in Scythian/Herodotus
1)Utu =sungod, time god in Sumerian.
ödü =time /Uigur turk
öt =sun, ot=fire /turk
idö =time /Hungarian
utu =sun god /Sumerian

2)sir, sar =ruler
chur =prince /Hun, Tibetan, Pechegen,Kirghiz (archaic)
Shar= ruler, king/ Chuvash (archaic)
=> pat-sha=king/modern Chuvash(pat=here, this land + sha(r)
=> the king of this place)

The Hatti sun god does not fit with this Scyth designation
because it is supposed to be "istanu", (also Sunday), which
in Hungarian is the name of God, even today as isten.
s=light + teng =sky/atmospere/spirit. A different aspect
of the sun than time. Perhaps it was also known.

Celestial Aphrodity is called Artimpasa
Artemis? <Scythian Artimpaz
erdim /Turk
erdim =virgin /Cuman
érdem /Hungarian + paz=god/Ob Ugrian

Poseidon (the sea god) is
Thami-mas-ada(s)/?/Tagi-mas-a-da(s)/Scyth
1a) tagas =sea /Mongol
dag-ály =tides, tág=to swell /Hungarian
teng-iz =sea /Turkic
tines = sea/Chuvash [ng >ns]
tang-aroa =sea /Polynesian
1b)tim =sea, well ?? /Sumerian <ref missing>
ti =sea,lake /Uralic
tav =lake [m>v] /Hungarian
2) mah =great,large /Scyth
mah =great, large, high, exalted/Sumerian
mag-as =tall, mély=deep /Hungarian
mekku =tall, high /Dravidian
man=big, great/Chuvash('a' sounds like(similar, but longer)
the last sound in 'here')
3) ada =father /Scyth
ada =father /Sumerian
ata =father /U.A.
atte=father/Chuvash

Ares (no Scyth name given) uses the symbol of the sword. Possibly a name sounding similar to Heracles to the Greeks Nergal >> Irigal the Messopotamian wargod, from Sumerian. The only Scythian god with an altar & sacrifices of men. In 20th century BC in Assyria there are already mention of sword symbology and customs. Where the sword of Assur was given special rites and ceremonies. Oaths of alliegance. The custom of sword sacrifices and symboligy is from Messopotamia. A Hittite stone relief is illustrated with a Jazyly Kaja, where a short stabing sword is shown pushed into the ground. It's handle decorated with gods and lions. It originates from the 14th to 13th centuries BC.

Similarly Jordanedes mentions the Hun sword customs the "gladius Martis" of the Huns and Avars. Also the Bulgars had such customs as did the Yazig. The Transylvanian Hungarians had customs even in the 13th through 15th centuries where they would place sword blades in the ground of a mound./Nagy Géza, "A szittyáks nemzetisége", Budapest 1895. The legend of the sword of Attila also has a sword coming out of the ground and claimed to be the sword of god. This same sword is claimed to be the sword of Hungarian kings which is now in a museum in Vienna. Its decoration and form are however early Hungarian and not of the form common to the Hun swords. Herodotus does not tell us what the Scythian word for sword is, which in this case would be very usefull, only the name of another prized Scythian weapon the toothed battle ax "sag-ar-is".

This is also in Hungarian as "szek-er-ce" which is also a wood ax and a battle ax name. In sumerian the name sagar is instead the name for a lance, spear since the root word sag=pointed, peak object. sag 2 also means to "chop down", sag'=point, head, sag 2,3=damage,strike.

 

Scythian Tribes

The land of the nomad Scythians on the banks of the Borystenes river is called "Hialea" . /Scythian
This has no relations to the Greek word for "woodland" as the area has allways been a plain and not forrested. Mistranslation.

1)From Hittite records "Hu-la-ia" =country name and river name.
Hull-ašša =country name/Friedrich MVAG Bd. 34
Ah-ku-la-aš-ša =Hatti origin place name.
hely=place, settlement area (sometimes town suffix) /Hungarian
köy =village /Turkish
ki =town,place /Sumerian
2)la =people /Scyth (already has examples)
halah=people/Chuvash
lu-lu =people /Sumerian
3)-ia, -ua = determinative suffix /Scyth
-i = of a place, from a place, ( -e, -a genetive)/Hungarian
-a = genetive / Sumerian

Arimaspi ="one eyed", near the mountains of the east (Urals)
"ari=one +ma (place-locative)+a =the+si=light+ep=comesout/entry"

Issedo(ne), a matriarchial people, where a woman has equal
rights to her husband. This has traces in several distant

Scythian nations, including the eastern Sakas. This is commonly a very non-Indo European practice, with similar remnants in Sumerian and early Egyptian (matriarchial inheritance customs). The Issedone also practiced a sort of canibalism of the deceised, mixing their flesh with the meat of sheep. In one place they are said to have displaced the Scyths some pushing them westward. ?? Yaz-ig Iranian?? Yas-et (-ta is the Alanic, Uralic, Altaic plural suffix).

Agathyrsi a matriarchial people where a woman may have several husbands. A people known for their great wealth and love of gold decorations. They are one of the Scythian nations. In the Greek version of the origin of the Scyths from the sons of Heracles and a serpent like mother, the Aga-thyrsy are one of the sons along with Gelonus and Scythes the youngest. They live in the west near the Danube.

"a-gathy-ar-si" = the royal army, or a-kati-ar.. the-Katiari.
Gelon(us) may be of the Au-chata group of Leipoxais. <religious>

1) a =the /scyth
2) kati=royal (or gi=central + ti =people/plural? )
3) ar =men/army
4) sa / sco =leader,ruling, chief
The chief of the armies, known also as Arpoxais, whose "clan"
is the Katiari.
--- or similarly ---
tarsua =fellow man /Hurrian
társ =fellow man /Hungarian
törzs =society, törzs =tribe /Hungarian
_turs_ =etruskans/ Etruskan
There is evidence of the etruskans spreading through the
Balknans into Ertruria, perhaps some stayed.

The "Greek" version of the Scythian origin myth may be another local tribes version in fact because there is much in it that has historical basis. The stringing of a composite Asian bow invented by the Hurrians, took much strength. The three sons of Heracles, who is the embodiment of strength in Greek mythology, [erö =strength in Hungarian] could only be done by "Scythes", so he became the ruler. There is much more to this than meets the eye however. I dont know about Turkish expressions but Hungarian expressions abound in references to this act of bending (the bow) and related excercising of power.

Along the Hypanis River, a tributary of the Danube.
Callippidae = Greek & Scythian mixture (?in customs)
(Kol=place/tent + lippi=beloved/royal +da ?plural.

Alazonian =inland along the Hypanis
Above these are the farming Scythians, who grow to sell their products.

According to Herodotus they dont use their own product. <very unlikely> This gets back to an age old false bias of the western cultures that the easterners are only flesh eaters. The Chinese also had this false idea. One can understand this best from the view that the settled agricultural societies probably ate little meat, while the semi-nomadic societies ate little grains. But both ate these when available, in obviously different quantities from each other, because arid lands are used for grazing and little grain grows there. Little water means little cultivation. There are lots of references to oasis or river areas in Central Asia where there was extensive irrigation and farming. One of these is considered the starting point of the Huns, and it has paintings of them with plows pulled by oxen. So much for that myth.

Neuri =in the north along the river Hypanis. Customs like the
Scyths. but perhaps not Scythian at all. They are said to turn
into wolves once a year. The infamous wherewolf myth, which is
supposedly also in Transylvania. <never heard of it there>
The totem animal is perhaps implied here, which is celebrated
somehow.. perhaps mimicking once a year and some kind of a
sacrifice? A dumb guess? The Turkic and Hun myths of origin
from a wolf or various dog breeds comes to mind. The Sumerian
mother goddess BAU is also assosciated with a dog.

I wonder if the Neuri are the same as the Enarees, the soothsayers of the Scyths, whose name is generally translated from "an-aryan=unmanly" using Iranian, but may in fact be something totally different. This is based on their "womanlike" custom of dress may be nothing more than a different dress culture. While scythians wore pants most of the rest of the surrounding world still did not! The Hurrians also used the term "nairi" for their peoples name in Urartu. This also has no relation to Iranian, but could be another element brought north by the Scythians from their Anatolian homeland.

However in Ob-Ugrian "nayer"=king,ruler.
Sumerian nir = ruler, prince,
Sumerian ner-gal =the prince of the underworld, wargod.
Dravidian anar =to rise, to move up.
Hungarian nagyur =great lord, prominent lord.

East of the Tanais (the Don River) is no longer Scythian, there live the Thyssa-getae, who are north of the Budini and are a hunting nation, who hunt with horse and dog by lying low, with horse and dog to ambush. < A strange tactic still tought in Hungary to horses, where the horse lies down on its side.

Thyssa?Tars=society-people/Hung,Hurri + geta/had=clan,army Ti=people/Scyth+ S=light/white+gi=above+ta=land-area /Scyth

North of the Royal Scythians are the Black Cloaks, (the ancestors of the Alans-Iranians.) The Alans traditionaly wore grey colored clothes. (So did others) "The Black Cloaks are a race quite different from the Scythians."/Herodotus They are not Scythians, but Iranic speakers! Alans are tall-slim, blondish people. In Hungarian traditions the Magyars, and Huns intermarried with them to form a new nation. /Legend of the Stagg According to Meszaros their name is also Iranian/Alanic. 4th cent A.D. "Alani et Melanchlaenae"/ Amm. Marcelus XXII i.e. the "Melanchlaenae"= the black cloaks. Procopius also writes that the old name of the Sauromata is "black cloak". The color of mourning in Ossetic "saudar". Herodotus explains their "incorrect Scythian" speech with the myth of origin from the non-scythian amazon women and scythians. The Amazons were called Oir-pata ="man slayers".

The term is also Sumerian
1)er=man + /U.A.& Sumer
oir =man /Scyth
uros =lead male/Uralic
The term may even be in common with "blood, relations,
clan settlement" in U.A. and Dravidian and Sumerian.
2) pad(4)=hardship,difficulty
bad (Diemel =stupid) , Hung buta =stupid.
bad (Diemel 152,7 =sick, dead) Hung bet-eg, pat-kol -el
bad (Diemel 69,100 =the end) Hunga fogy =to diminish
bad (Diemel 69,100 =fall apart) Hung pat-an =to break, snap apart
bad (Diemel 69,29 =old, elder) Hung bátya, bácsi=elder brother,elder
bad (Diemel 69,38 =take out,remove Hung bánt=to hurt, injure.

Pat-ak= stick, pat-ak-la=to beat with a stick/ Chuvash
bot =stick, rod, bot-oz =to beat with a stick /Hu
pata-k = beating, pata-k-la = to beat /Turkish **
bánt =hurt, vád =accusation [b>v], /Hu
bát-or =brave, (old bahatur)/Hu
Mongol bahadur =knight, brave,
Turk bagatur?
bety-ár =criminal or scoundrel /Hu
pat-var = an argument or fight, quarrel, wrangle./Hu
bit-ang = an incorrigable bad person./Hu
pat-an =crack and break apart./Hu
pat-og-tat =to be cracking (a whip)./Hu
bot-lik =stumble, slip, blunder./Hu
bot-rány =scandal./Hu
bont- =to demolish, take to pieces. /Hu
b/v vad=wild, untamed /Hu
vit-éz =knight, warrior [noble] /Hu
batesa =noble knight./parthian
vad-ász =hunter ?killer.(thats about the closest to it) /Hu
véd =defend, protect./Hu d/t //s

"Oir-pata"=man killers(?) (beaters?), were known to the Greeks as Amazons who in time intermaried with the Scythians, but their children become the Sauromata who never learned Scythian correctly./Herod. A rather dubious explanation, but there probably was a mixing of the Iranic group with the Scyths before and after their
conquest by the Sauromata. It is strange that the Sumerian term "eme-sal" sounds so much like "ama-zo(n)" to me, and meant "language of women", but was a whole different dialect of Sumerian.

North east of the Royal Scythians after crossing a plain you come to a great mountain (Ural Mountains) where the Argipei live, a people bald, flat noses, very long chins (Mongoloids), with their own language. Ob-Ugrians coming from the north-east, who adopted Finno-Ugrian language but with many eastern links. Their description is Scythian:
"AR=men/army +gi=above + pa =land +i=of" =upper lands of army

Soothsayers are the "enarees" who dress like women and use willow wands and also the inner bark of the linden tree. najer =king,ruler /Ob ugrian, nir =prince /Sumerian nyir =moist, wet, birch tree /Hungarian (uralic-altaic-dravidian) Willow is also a tree that loves moisture like the birch. (???) a-na=the+mother/female/feminine + er=men == "feminine men"
an-aryan =un-manly /Iranian
/Meszaros believes these to also be Iranians, but other
explanations are also certainly possible, as shown above.

Begining at the upper reaches of the Meotis (Sea of Azov) for 15 days march there are no trees. Above this area live the Budini. An old turkic name for people. They live in a thickly wooded area with trees of every type. North of the Budini, there is a desert of 7 days march, after which comes the "Thy-ssa-getae" who are hunters. These were already discussed. Adjoining them are the people who bear the name Iyrcae =?Finns. Finnish "yrkö" = men.