The Language of the Scythians, through  the works of Herodotus

by Rudolf Dudás



     Our Hungarian Chronicles and Gestas and early history up to the 19th century thought it very natural and obvious that we Hungarians, are associated with the Scythians; and the use of a common language wasn’t doubted either. This was reflected in many of the oldest legends, such as the “legend of the stagg”, and others right down to the early Hungarian kings, and even currently existing folk songs.


This association wasn’t simply from early Medieval Hungarian documents either, but even the popes, called Hungarians, the remnants of the royal Scythians. (Octorber 3, 1329 letter of pope John XXII to Jeretyan Mir.)  The political pressures forced upon Hungarians in the last century that caused the fragmentation of the country, had also put a great pressure to destroy Hungarian history and obliterate its meaning and to wipe it out of our memory.  These foreign dictatorships went to the extent to claim that even the Scytians were an unknown and non-existent people, so that such a nonexistent people couldn’t possibly be our relations.


    This constant bickering and antagonistic behavior was changed with the results of the research of Russian archeologists when newer and newer Scythian gold treasures kept being discovered. 
(L. : Alexander Mihajlovic Leskov und Renate Rolle, "Neue Funde skythischer schatze", 1972). The attack on Hungarians after this however only changed their tactics, claiming that the stupid wandering - nomad ancient Hungarians could in no way be linked to the high culture of the Scythians. This racist view came from the "so called" Hungarian Academy, which always emphasizes only the most archaic stone age cultural link to the Finno-Ugrian community, which is only a linguistic relationship and not racial, not cultural, nor valid in any other way!


The very narrowly confined knowledge of the Finno-Ugrian researchers, who often made and still make huge historic blunders, were proven to be impossible by archeologists, but they still hid behind their invented history and managed to convince the world of this. This after the Magyar Historic Academy at this same time was taken over by a totally foreign spirit and for this the academicians of today cannot take responsibility; however now in a more independent national environment, they could be the forerunners of those who correct these many negative historic views from what existed prior to 1848. However they have only isolated themselves from all the new discoveries of archeology, genetics, mythology and other linguistic ties and have done nothing to balance or update their views, but continued to block any new ideas from being studied and from surfacing, throwing anyone out of work who dares to challenge any aspect of their simplistic and idealized views. Indeed, despite the education and scientific foundation of some of propagators of these new ideas, they are branded with a range of vile names, from simply amateurs, dilatants, to ultranationalists to racists. Scientific proofs or discussions are thrown out the window.


    The Russian viewpoint isn't truthful either, which in the U.S. and throughout the world, has exhibited the Scythian treasures as though it was the product of the Russian genius. If we don’t examine the golden staggs of Tapio-szent-marton or Zöld-halom-puszta of Hungary, then these could also be claimed by them. Truth must be reborn again in the world: which would allow the strong Hungarian links to the Scythian culture and tradition, a fact that in the 12th through the early 19th century was accepted by many of the top historians from Europe to India.


Furthermore, to counter the Russian propaganda, we should also take the Hungarian Scythian treasures in the possession of Hungarian museums, on a world tour, to acquaint the world with them and explain their Hungarian ties and origins. This can be also explained by the now doubted first and only settlement of Hungarians in the 9th century, foisted on Hungarians by the Finno-Ugrian Academy. This totally ignored the early Hungarian records, which have always claimed the 896AD Magyar “resettlement” as a later return of a segment of the population from Southern Russia, from where the other Scythian treasures originated. It never, ever claimed it to be a conquest, nor as an initial settlement over a foreighn population. It explicitly stated settlement amongst relatives of a common language.


With the moderation of the political situation in Hungary the traditional view of our ancestors can again be viewed in a new light and it is our vital interests that it be clarified again. This however will require the cooperation of the various sciences. The only sciences, which has been dragging their heals, are the traditional F.U. linguists.


On the archeological line it is worth mentioning the work of Dr Kornél Bakay's work in the Altai Mountains, where he found new Scythian rockdrawings. It is well known that the people there (as well as in Southern Russia and Hungary) have called these burial mounds (barrows) with the name "kur-gan", which in Hungarian is also "kor-hány", and used as an elevated burial grave. Actually the Hungarian etymology of this word is better than the Turkic one and isn't a loan word as claimed, but no one cares to hear that. Kor,Kur=mountain,hill in FinnUgor & Sumerian + hány=to pile up. Hant-ol however also means to burry by piling on dirt. The word is also explainable in Sumerian/Scythian as "mound of the steppes" (KUR-GÁN).


In the area in east Hungary beyond the Tisza River near Mezö Hegyes "steppe Mountains" there are also many Scythian burial mounds. Today Hungarians pronounce the Kurgan word as Korhány, due to the language sound development:  where the U changed to O and the G softened to H. Hopefully official historians or archeologists should have no problem with such minor changes in pronunciation.


    As a result of this study it becomes obvious, that the Scythian language is quite similar to the Sumerian language. The similarity between the two languages has been stated first in the past by Sir Henry Creswick Rawlinson and Fracois Lenorman. The Hungarian Accademy to this day, has not been able to take a stand on the origins of the Scythians,  although several private statements of experts, disagree with the official I.E. kurgan hypothesis, not just in Hungary but elsewhere.  From the scientific view, this appears to be a very poor performance and the Hungarian citizen may rightfully ask, "who determines the expertness of these Hungarian linguists, historians and archeologists, who over the years have only been able to eliminate and minimalize, what is known rather than to expand on it, despite the very large gains made by the various sciences.


    In examining the many Hungarian place names, we run into many, which were first written using the Székely Hungarian-Hun runic writing, which is unlike the Germanic runes. Most of these were prechristian in origin from Western Asia, and perhaps that’s why the pope banned it's use during the time of St.Stephen, the first Catholic King of Hungary.


    The Hungarian alphabet, which were recorded in the Nicholsburg Codex has the curious distinction that, although they differ from the usual carved forms as well as from the Mesopotamian cuneiform, due to their rounded shapes. They are also syllabic in use, and they are perfectly adaptable to express the sounds of the cuneiform symbols.


    From the beginning of the spreading of the Greek alphabet approximately 58 ancient historians have mentioned the Scythians (Saka) by their name, in accordance to Greek hearing and pronunciation of course. Their earliest reporting from about 700BC mentions them as a warrior horseman and archer nation.


    From a Hungarian perspective, the primary report is the most important, according to which:  The Scythians didn’t come from anywhere but were always present adjacent to the Black Sea and the Caspean Sea. That is they were the aboriginals of these regions and no one lived there earlier./Herodotus, 484BC-394BC; "About the Scythians", translated by Károly Tolnay, pg 11, Bp., 1980.  They have tried constantly to deny their origins from here, ever since, but cannot change the words of Herodotus.


    The information of Herodotus, which talk for the most part about the Scythians living next to the Black Sea, came from discourses of people living in various Greek colonies, which by then doted the Black Sea coastline. One of his Grecianized named confidants: Tümnos (Dymme?) dictated and wrote of the Scythians in an honorable way. Histories which to us is of invaluably important information. His phonetic representation of the Scythian language is so acceptable, that most Sumerian linguists should be able to recognize it, if he/she was only willing to try. This study is based upon the accepted truth of the works of the two most important ancient Greek historians.


    According to the archeologists, the southern style agriculture did not arrive to the southern Russian plains before 2500BC. These possibly were the Cimmerians who were the western neigbors of the Scythians, but possessing a agriculturalist and herding, horseriding culture. This was roughly at the same time that the Summerian culture flowered in Mesopotamia. We also known that 25,000 years earlier one of the eastern centers of the Graveti Culture was also is found in this same region.  Currently it is the accepted view that in the intervening 20,000 years the Scythians subsisted on hunting and their large herds. The close association with the local aboriginal populations, known as the Tauri Cimmerians, proves that the underground burials found next to Partyizanskoje province contain both Scythians and Tauri-Cimmerians together, buried in a style reminiscent of the tightly compressed style of Bronze Age, just as their many artifacts also show this. 


    Our data on the millenias before 1000BC are very uncertain and sketchy, because previous to this time foreigners to this area of Southern Russia (Ukraine) feared to enter. The references to the Scythians found in the Bible are also very vague. Generally they labeled all Scythian like people with the Mesopotamian name of the Cimmerians, with the name Gomer.  According to the legends recorded by Herodotus, the first man who lived here was called Targita(us).

TAR - GI -TA - US' "One who is guided by sincerity/truth"
 12   85  139  211  (Labat)




    The meaning of the name of the ancestor of the Scythians was also a common characterization of his nation, his descendants. Truth and trustworthiness above advantage, which is greatly missing today.


    To illustrate this trait to those who doubt it, let me show that in Sumerian "GI" =trustworthy, sincerity and the morphology of this whole word, which is shown in the following two Scythian/Sumerian sentences.


INIM  -  GI  -  NA  - BĚ   HA  -  MA  - DA  -SÁ  -ŔM

"I am committed to the sincere/true word"                 AND





NÍG   -  SI  -  SŔ  - E    KI  - HA - BA _ÁG  - AM      dS'UL- GI

 I like the straightness/truth.                           "shulgi"





    This great moral virtue can be found thousands of years later in the Árpád house kings of Hungary, possessing the largest family of saints, through several generations. This shows that this characterization was always present amongst them. Even the name/title of the Hungarian commander in chief of the Magyar armies of 896, known as Árpád can be likened to the old Scythian commander and chief of the armed men “Cati-ari” with the Scythian version of the name “ARPOX-ais”.

The name is found in early northern Mesopotamia also. The Scythian term Cati is most likely also tied to modern Hungarian Had =unit of soldier,army.


Starting with one of the ancestors of that family, known as ÜGEK or ÜGYEK whose etymology is as follows.


U    - E   - GE  -  K(E4)  

411    308   85     233    "the prince of truth"


His son Almos was also known for his wisdom and truthfulness according to the early Hungarian Chronicles.


The early descendant of Almos was GEZA, whom the Greek emperor Michael Dukas, titled GEOBICES as illustrated in the back of the Hungarian Holy Crown.


GE  -  U4 -  U -  BI  -T(I) - SÁ  -  A

480   381   411   214  376    457    579


The king who strives to reach godly enlightenment"
GE, (GI) =king
U4 =light, shine, sun;
U  =god,
BI =possessive suffix.
TE,TI =to reach, approach, to obtain.

SÁ =to strive, to be successful.


The son of king GÉZA, was St. Steven, whose precoronation name was VAJK.


U4   -  A  -  I  -  I  -  K(E4)  = "the praiseworthy father's light".
381    579   142       233;   A=father, I-I =praisworthy


Other members of this family, some of whom the church disliked because of their earlier magian leanings.


4/ VAZUL;   U - A  -  ZU  - UL  "famous magian prince" (Slav Vasili)

5/ KOPÁNY:  GUB - BA - Á - AM/AN "in possession of great power"
This is also mentioned as a late Scythian title “Kapgan”.

6/ ENDRE :  EN - DERE "highest prince"

7/ KÁL-MÁN : KAL -MA - AN "having great respect"

8/ LEVENTE:LE-U4 -E- N(I)-TI-KA "the defender of the side of the sun god". This name has been found in the royal family throughout history and associated with the defender of the marches. The name is sometimes also compared to the Asian Hun royal clan name recorded by the Chinese as “Liu-ente”.


    The Hungarian man by nature strives for justice and truth, a fact that others try to taken advantage of, because his instinct derived from his natural inheritance from his ancestors tells him that the basis of living in harmony with others is truth.  This fact is also reflected clearly in the Hungarian language in its directness rather than secretive expressions and its overriding expressions that always relates to other people as equals ("felek"), rather than as subservients, which is so uncommon in most European languages. (mellérendelö vs alárendelö)  This tradition goes back to the ancient tradition of northern sunworship, where the sungod was the god of truth and protector of mankind and was represented by the light of the sun, which enlightens us. (the dawn sun & sungod KOR-, KWOR-ES) 


It is already seen that today's world order is based on lies and deception and it is beginning to crack apart and will never survive into the next hundred years. That small fragment of humanity, who have survived unspoiled, who can see without being drunken with today's propaganda, can  see the coming power of light, the strengthening sun's renewed power after an ages of darkness. The slow recovery to the golden age.


    According to the discourses of Herodotus  "……..the parents of Targitaus according to the Greek terminology, were none other than ZEUS, the Greek version of the father of the gods and the daughter of the river Borystenes."  Gyula Mészáros claims that the Scythian name of God was therefore TAR, which is reflected in several FinnoUgrian languages also as well as Chuvash Turk and some Anatolian languages. It is interesting that the name Borystenes grants us such possibilities as "The magical river of life."


BUR(U) -   Í   -  ZI  -   TU6  -  E   -  NE   - ES'

227       579     84     17      308     172





To the Scythians the river & water goddess was quite important and are referred to in various references in their study, with various different names from the Scythians all the way to the Huns. All of them thought of her as an important goddess.


As though magical mermaids lived in those rivers, one of whom becoming the wife of the chief god (Zeus). To Hungarians familiar with folklore, the image of Tündér Ilona comes to mind. In accordance to the Chronicles in place of Zeus "Arany apácska" (the golden father). According to tradition these two have lived through eternity, and are described nicely by the collected mythological works of Magyar Adorján.  Even this episode throws light on the origin of the Scythians. Our folklorists see in these the origins of  the ancient Hungarian religion, a small portion of which later survived in fairy tales.


Three sons were born to the ancestor of the Scythians, Targitaus.
LIP-OXAIS, ARP-OXAIS, and KOL-AXAIS. These were the leaders of various segments of Scythian society.


LIB -  AHA  - Í  -  SÍ       "heart full of love" the chief priest.

AB  -  AHA  - Í  -  SÍ       "full of fatherly love"
KU  -  L(Í) - AHA - Í  - SÍ  "full of brotherly love"


This fatherly love was not given without a goal, to mould the future king to be kindly toward his people, even after his rise to the throne. This to serve the goal of brotherly love during his rule. Examples of this are shown on Scythian artifacts where their caring and help in good times and bad is illustrated. Already at this early time the seeds of Jesus Christianity, the teachings of Christ, are sensed and that link is also provable in the person of Scythus, a great religious teacher, who tought both Budha and Mani, who were both founders of very pure and ethical religions. The religion of Scythus, is referred throughout early Hungarian historical documents such as the book of laws as the old religion, which was similar, but not identical to Manicheism.  It derived from the source rather than from a later new teacher Mani./Pap Gábor. The religion of Jesus having its roots in the teachings of Scythus, originating ultimately with the older Scythian spiritual world.


According to traditions LEIPOHIS was the leader of the AU-HATA tribe.
Note Hungarian "Had" has the double meaning of clan/tribe as well as a military unit and this term is found in several eastern Scythian tribal names.


A   -  U4  -  HAD  -  DA    "the descendant of the bright sun god."

579    381    295     335





The name of the Avar Huns, descendants of the white Huns, who ruled India and Afghanistan and central Asia for a while, could also be described in this same way to be the "descendants of the Sun".


A    - U4   - AR   where AR can have the similar meaning as HAD.


The tribe of ARPO-XA-IS was called the CATI-ARI (army) and the TRANSPIANS, who lived besides the sea and fished.


T(e)R  -A   - ZČ  - BĚ  - ZĚ  (-A)"dweller of forest next to the sea"
375    579    338a  214   84   579





We know that the Greeks traded for boatloads of fish from the Scythians.  The livelihood of various branches of the Scythians were determined by the type of natural bounty found in their respective lands. This is the most archaic form of ethnic designations.


Another of their famous trade goods were their metalworking, because on the left side of the Dnyper River, the archeologists have found many remains that are similar to those found in the foundries of the Hungarian county of Somogy, well known as an ancient area of metal production, near the town of BÜ. (Note: Somogy/Simig =smith) The metal culture of Hungary therefore can be tied to that of the Scythians, just as the metal arts of the Etruscans has already been tied to Hungary by Hugh Henken (USA).



KOL-AX-AIS the youngest son, who won the throne of TAR-GITA-US, whose name according to Gyula Mészáros, meant "son of god", ruled over the PARALATI.  According to the legend in the days of TARGITAUS a golden plow, joke, battle ax and cup fell from heaven. These were hot so that the first elder sons were unable to pick them up without burning themselves, however by the time the youngest boy arrived and picked them up they were cooled off. Because of that the youngest son inherited his father's throne.  This too has a parallel in Hungarian folk customs where the youngest son inherits his fathers farmstead and takes care of the old folks, since the older ones are themselves getting on in years.  The city of Cholxis was named after the king of the Scythians, KOLAXAIS.


The people and clan of Kolaxais became the "knights", priests and royalty of Scythians.


Herodotus also noticed that every Scythian prince had a common "family" name Skolotus (Saka in scythian not SKO)


"the persevering servant of the enchanting sun god"

SAG  - KUL -  U4  - TU6 
115    72     381   16




The Skolot name in Greek was Scytha, which in my opinion is none other than.


SAG -  U   -   TU6  - A "the servant of the magical sun god




Another view has spread in the western schools that the name is related to SAG-UD-DA, which actually means "light faced". They however forgot to mention the initial TH and it's presence.  Not all Scythians were light skin color, but the western Cimmerians were. There were also eastern Kusan Scythians who were brown, just as prince ALMOS is mentioned to be very tall and brown by the Hungarian Chronicles.  "In the opinion of Herodotus the residents of Moldva, which is now in old Rumania, were known by the name AGATHYRSI./ Tolnay Károly, "A Szkitákrol", pg 14. This is the same opinion in the official historian circles, which calls the river Dnyster, which was known by the Scythians as the river Tyras, and was according to tradition was also the burial place of the royal Cimmerians, the Tauri. This was the western boundary of the early Scythians. This opinion however is inconsistent with the name of the AGATHYRS name, if we actually translated it correctly from what the Agathyrsi called themselves rather than what the Royal Scythian called them.


AGA  -  TU6  - IR  -S'U  -US' 

347     16     232  354   211



The interpretation means "The followers of the magical/holy crown's".  This could be indicating a dependant relationship also. The Aga-thyrsi name has some similarity also to the Thracians and Tursci, known today as the Etruscans. The Agathyrsi therefore were known as the followers of the Scythian king(?dom).  AGA - TU6  meant a holy crown and also a crown of horns, which in the Mesopotamian Scythian language of the Sumerians is also meant by AGA-AN-S'U or AGANCS in Hungarian. This is the crown given by heaven, the crown of the Magi, which before the cross had a miniature of the stag horns.




The Hungarian Holy crown, with it’s Christian images depicting god on his throne, Jesus, the saints and in the past the Virgin Marry was on the rear of the crown. This is not a simple royal crown, but an initiation crown. Paraphrasing Gabor Pap "It is rarely worn during normal events except during ceremonial occasions, as an initiation. Hungarian customs associated with the crown and coronation are quite unlike most European ones with many unique features. Simply put, it doesn’t derive from the Biblical-Jewish traditions, and the anointing doesn’t have any relevance while the crown is even more respected than the king, since he can be deposed."


No king can become a legal king of the Hungarians unless he has been initiated appropriately by the holy crown. He then becomes nearly the same as a priest as well as a king. It's as though the whole idea of kingship resides within the crown itself, since it is the link between heaven and earth./Gábor Pap.


The custom and laws associated with the heaven given, Hungarian Holy Crown can be traced back to antiquity to aspects of the Sumerian traditions, which again are totally different than the customs of the later Semites.  King Sulgi (2100 BC) also claims that "I have placed back upon my head the holy crown". This indicates that the custom is many thousands of years old, and probably even older than the Sumerians. Basically it was similar in form to the crown of horns, of the Shamans, which also had a sacral function as early as the Graveti Culture in 25,000 BC Europe. This was the AGA-AN-S'U the heaven given crown, whose other meaning is the "horned".  The Hungarian crown is just a late christianized form of this indoctrination/cult crown.



Other Greek sources refer to the AGATHYRSI living next to the river Maros in Transylvania. Here I must also mention that despite (modern) belief that the belief that the name of Transylvania is not Latin in origin, but Scythian, because:


   T(E) R  -  AN  -SI  -IL  -U4  -Á    -NI  -A

   375        13   112  320  411  334   231  579


"the high forest, risen from the power of  the sun god."

Also the word SILVAN in Latin is from Etruscan (Tursci, Rasena). A people in northern Italy, who were also Tauri Scythian in origin, coming by the way of  the Balkans, with an agglutinative language, quite similar to early Hungarian.(Dr Mario Alinei) SILVAN was the Etruscan god of forests/vegetation. Alinei's articles are published and a summary of his works is on the internet.


The land which was recently stolen by the Rumanians from Hungary, with the help of western powers and their whole explanation of this name is nothing but the plagerized variant of the name mentioned previously.



The NEURI Scythians, living at the headwaters of the river BUG are claimed today to be Slavs, perhaps because our linguists have not been able to make sense of this word, so like with all historical and archeological records, if something is found to be indeterminate, it is automatically made Slavic in Eastern Europe. No proof, is proof by omission somehow. The name actually refers to a border guard with the following etymological explanation.


NČ   UR  =heroic defense force.

444        575




These NEURI were the defenders of the territory of the Scythians who were also agriculturalists, like the pre-scythian Cimmerians.  To the north of these territory were the prippet marshes, which were the lands of the ANDRO-PHAGI, known as the wild "canibals, man eaters". We wonder, whether this was not the pure imagination of the Greeks or that it was actually true? In any case this is precisely the region where the ancestors of the Slavic people are claimed to originate from.



The GELONI or GELON-os, had a tribal government, independent from the Scythians.  They enjoyed a similar type of independence and privileges  that the "border guard"  Transylvanian Hungarians had. They could have been the ancestors of the KOMI or FINNS.  (F.U. *KOJE-ME > KOMI =man)
To the Scythians however it meant.

  GE  -LÚ  -NU  -US'   ="those who follow no king"
  480  330  75   211




   The KALLIPIDs living north of the big bend of the Dnyeper river, called Borystenes by the Scythians. Borystenes also represented their mother goddess in the form of a half woman half serpent. This "bori" term acording to Dr Gyula László, is found even today, among various Ural Altaic, but mainly Altaic tribes, as the name of the mother goddess and sometimes in the form of a female deer. Not all the tribes had the same animal totem, but the most common was the horned stagg as amongst the Scythians as well as the Huns and Hungarians. Their occupation was mainly agriculture, but they also had orchards, fishing and hunting. Archeologists have found from wheat, rhye, millet, sweat peas from the time of the Scythians.


Their name may be related to the.  "rulers of the inner groves" The grove here refers to sparsely wooded areas which were probably slashed and burned, leaving some areas wooded.

KAL   -LI  -IB  -BI  -DA
322    59   535  214  335





The KÁL, GAÁL are also mentioned in Hungarian history as a prominent Hungarian clan.



The Sarmatians originated from southern Ural Mountains areas and later pushed into Scythian areas, and in time took over the rule from them. They lived at the lower section of the Volga River, on the "Saurmata" plains.  According to Herodotus their name can be interpreted to be "victorious heroes".


ZA - UR - U  - MA  - TA

586  575  455  342   139




These people were such war hardened warriors, that they were able to stop the advance of the Roman legions.  Their scale armor and long lances were illustrated quite accurately on the Roman column of Trajan.


The Scythian people's other horse warriors were the Parthian kata-phalk, who under the leadership of PAKORUS, broke the phalanxes of the Romans at Carrhe, Syria. According to tradition, the mothers of the Sarmatians were the fighting Amazon women, who according to Herodotus, could only teach their young the Scythian language inaccurately, because their language was not originally Scythian. The Amazon genetic research has proven that the Amazons were from Central Asia, and even a direct descendant has been found of an Amazon queen found in a kurgan burial among the Turks in Mongolia, by a female American archeologist. This was quite a huge discovery, but was quickly covered up afterwards, and she lost her monetary support for further work.



    In the north there were many many other smaller peoples, which were mentioned by Herodotus, such as the Budin, who had light blue eyes and were a red haired nomadic people.  Also such people as the IYIR (or Irka =Finn irka is youngman and they also are known for their light blue eyes and light hair color.) also the Udmurt, Komi, Mari, who today are known collectively as the Finno-Ugrians. The Scythians acted as the main rulers and ties between these people. No doubt this is the origin of the FinnoUgrian language family, which otherwise genetically isn't related to the Hungarians.



     The MASSA-GETA was a great tribe, who lived from the Caspean Sea toward the east. They were the cause of the westward migration of the Scythians, who in turn pushed out and absorbed the Cimmerians, who were also the ancestors of the later Thracians of the Balkans. Some of these changes were only at the leadership level of these people, and most people remained in place.  Similarly in the armies of Attila the Hun there were both Scythians and Sarmatians, who fought together as allies. ("Attilam Massagetarum Scytharumque exercitu armatum apud Romam processisse".) The name of the Massageta refers to their military name.

In Sumerian: 
      Mas' -sa  -sa   gid -da = "the champions of the drawn bowstring"
Del. 163,   104, 104, 371, 335




MELANKALEI known as the "black?grey cloaks" could perhaps be better explained rather as:


ME -LAM - KALA -Č  -NE "shining ones, to release the light, heroes?
532,      322   381 172





To a Hungarian of the near past, there was no better expression of his outer character than his richly decorated cloak. Precisely such cloaks are shown on the rock reliefs of Persepolis illustrating the Medes and also among the descendants of the white Huns, still living in northern India.



     Our written sources about the history of the Scythians and their language is quite incomplete, but those that did remain are even more important. During their westward spreading in 7th century BC, their king Ispakay they united with the Medes and Mannai and moved against Assyria. From the name ISPAKAY it appears that both the Medes and Manai originated from the southern Caucasus area and were related type of people.


"the joined fire of glorious rule"

  IZ(I)    PAG   GA   Á   I     I
  172      78    139  334 142  142




This war ended peacefully; Esharhadron (681-668) the king of the Assyrians came to an agreement with the king of the Scythians BARTATUA, whose name refers to his high priest status.


   BAR  -  TA  - TŮ - A
  344     139    58   579  ="born in the holy glen".


The Etruscans had a similar name for their kings "purx", whose title is also translated by the Latins to mean dictator/king or more precisely commander, as in Hungarian PAR-ancs-ol-o (a command-er), while an empire is BIRO-DAL-OM. Similarly BAR = king, ruler in Sumerian.



According to Herodotus, the Scythians stayed in the Near East for 28 years, where they founded several cities and left behind a considerable amount of their people. One of these groups founded the famous city of Scythopolis known by the Israelites as Beth-Shahan.



In 513BC during the time of the Persian attacks on the Scythians, the Scythian king S-ko-pas-is is mentioned. This name has been considerably influenced by the Greek pronunciation and hearing. This title has an explanation also in Sumerian.


lu SAG -  GÚB  -  BA   "the directing chief", or the "head governor".
   330    115     206


SŔ   GU  -  UB -  Á  -  SÍ  "the empowered governor"
    208       344       112



Another military leader that fought in this war was known as IDANTHIRS-US. From his name we believe him to be a Magi or magician.


I  -  DAN  -  TU6  - E    -IR  -S'U  - US'  The follower of divine 
142   248     17     308  232   354    211   obligation."




The great importance that the leaders remain of high esteem and pure is again reflected in this name. The attacks on the name and respect of the magus of Medieval Hungary during the inquisitions were derived from the Christian intolerance toward the eastern religions, no matter how they reflected a higher morality and were great healers and teachers. Many of them were accused but many also were acquitted since they did no harm, but good./Fehér Mátyás, "A közékori Magyar Inkvizició".


A comrade of Idanthirsus was Takas-is. Which also sounds like the Hunish/Turkish "Tegin" title. 


TAG  -  SAG  -KI  - SÍ    "having many forehead injuries"

124     115         112




The Scythians, as befitting an enlightened people, tried to live in friendship with their neighbors, the Greeks.  The cultural contacts between these two people is evidenced by the Scythian names, which over time are mentioned in the Greek histories by the Greek historians and scientists.  Lukianos mentions a TOXARIS "wise man"  and a ANAXARSIS who is from a "royal family", who worked in science in Athens.


TU6  - E  - HAR  -  RI - SI   "good hearted magian priest"

16     308  401    86    112




AN   - A   -HAR  -  ZI - SI  "blessed by heaven with a good heart"

13     579  401    84    112





The members of the royal family not only received their crowns from heaven, but also received their hearts from the lord of heaven. This sounds rather strange to us today, but just remember that the heart was the abode of the soul the spirit, and that is what is referred to here. The initiation of the coronation was meant to infect the king's spirit with the holy spirit as in the Hungarian coronation practices.


These spiritual qualities were precursors to the teaching of love and care that our lord Jesus Christ thought, and which was also known by some as "the Scythian religion", most specifically it was also known as the “ancient religion” in Hungary, that became persecuted as a heresy to make way for a new world power of Judeo-Christianity, that the pope hoped to govern.


In the precedence of Christian morality, we can recognize TARGITAUS, SHULGI, BARTATUA, IDANTHIRSUS and with them many other Scythian ancestors;  at the Last Supper we can also recognize a variation of the Scythian blood oath that represented the covenant between each other. The name of the cup of christ, which some call the Holy Grail we also recognize the name in Hungarian as "serleg".


S'ER  - LEG/LAG   "the results of purity" or
152      314       "the collector of pure virtue"