Sumerian and Finn-Ugor
compared to Sumerian
updated on 12/6/2002
It should be noted that I have received considerable criticism for publishing this article, from the so called Hungarian experts, who avoid this subject like its the plague. They cite various reasons for the impossibility for the similarity between FinnUgor and Sumerian, which are to me all groundless. Coincidental similarities of course exist and they need not be just a few words if we look at statistical probability theory. However I have gone through a lot of time and effort to develop the sound rules of Sumerian vis a vis proto Finnugor and can assure the reader that there is no randomness or coincidence involved, and the sheer number of shared terms prooves the likelihood that Sumerians originated from the north before settling in Mesopotamia. The identity of such a large number of titles and names for elementary gods cannot be just coincidence. Then are also the common motifs and similar behaviour of the same gods and goddesses which is also not random. The idea proposed early by some amateurs that somehow the Sumerians influenced the northern FinnUgor people however now seems almost impossible and is certainly an unlikely explanation of these links, especially since the earliest ties were from before the appearance of the Sumerians in southern Messopotamia. Such ties as the Sumerian writing found at Tatarlak, in what is now Rumania, was Carbon-14 dated from 1000 years before the apearance of the identical writing style from Djemdet Nasr in Messopotamia. There is a comon thread and a common terms that are found not just in FinnUgor but often also in Altaic and Dravidian languages which in their early stages of development apear to be neighboring agglutinative language types of western Asia, along with the Sumerian, whose stories were the prototypes of the early stories of the Bible. This article is a very condensed listing of the many common terms, with only a short description of concepts.
Tripartate division of the cosmos
The cosmos was divided into three regions, the upper heavenly world of the gods, the middle world of humans, and the underworld. This tripartate structure is one of the oldest north Eurasian folk beliefs. /17 The three cosmic planes were joined together by the cosmic tree, and cosmic mountain or column located in the center of the world. The top of the mountain /column /tree was likened to the North Star to a hinge and a spoke of the "heavenly hinge", likewise the "north pin", the "celestial keeper", the "pole star" and the "heavenly pole"./17 This view was shared by most Finn-Ugor people and also by most Altaic languages /3 as well as the Sumerians. Probably even others.
The world mountain (KUR/GUR/KAR >WOR)
Hungarians also called the celestial mountain the "glass mountain" because of
its invisible nature representing as it were the atmosphere surrounding earth
through which one can see the starry heavens. In Altaic mythology the cosmic
mountain is at the center of the world, that makes connection
between earth and sky possible. The Tatars of Altai imagine Bai Ülgan in the middle of the sky, seated on a golden mountain./Radlov, Aus Sibirien, II, p6. The Mongols, the Buryat, the Kalmyk know it under the names of Sumbur, Sumur, or Sumer, which shows Indian influence ( = Mt Meru). It's summit is in the Pole Star, in the "Navel of the Sky". The Buryat say that the Pole Star is fastened to its summit. /Holmberg, Der Baum des Lebens, pp41,57; Finno-Ugrian and Siberian Mythology p341.
The Sumerians called the celestial mountain, the mountain of en-Lil, the air god and chief god on earth. The name of the great mountain was also known as KUR which connected heaven and earth together. /10 KUR by the way also means mountain in several Finn-Ugor languages./3 pg263.
Sumerian kur =mountain, highland, foreign land. /2, pg167
Sumerian ur = mountain pass, roof, beam /28
Sumerian kur4 =great > uru16=huge, giant. /28
Sumerian é-kur =mountain house, pyramid, temple./10
Sumerian zi-kur-at, zi-gur-at =temple, "spirit-mountain-?"
1)FinnUgor *wore=point, peak, mountain./1,v3,pg503
-Finn korkea = height/3 pg263, vuori=mountain, peak.
-Zürjen kur =mountain/3 pg263,
-Zürjen ver=forrest (forrested mountain)/1,v3,pg503
-Votjak gures, gurec=mountain/
-Ostjak karis, keres=mountain, height./3 pg263
-Hungarian -kora =big,high (me-kora?) /19
-Hungarian orm=peak [k>h>ř], mountain peak; or=pointed, peaked.
2)Altaic *k`uri=hill, embankment /18
-Mongolic *kür, /18
-Tungusic *xuré /18
-Korean *ko`ra'ŋ /18
-Japaneic *ku`ru`a /18
3)Dravidian horu=hil, mountain/21
These examples show that the term kur was an ancient term common amongst the 3 major neighboring agglutinative language families that were close to Proto Sumerian which later moved to early Mesopotamia, Uralic (north-west), Altaic (north-east), Dravidian (central-southern) and Sumerian which originally was their neighbors before the split up.
The world tree, the axel of the worldThere are many Hungarian fairy tales about the "tree without a top" and the "the tree that reaches the sky" which holds the sun and moon
The Sumerians and FinnUgor languages appear to share a lot of mythological as
well as basic terms. However the Sumerians couldn't
have given these terms to the to the Finn-Ugor people or Altaics from Mesopotamia as some amateurs claim. Instead they themselves must
have broken out of the company or neighboring Ural-Altaic peoples before they moved to Mesopotamia before 3,500 BC. Some claim this occured after the great flood, told by the Sumerians. They already had the basic language links before they ever settled in
Mesopotamia into an area where Sumerian was isolated over time amongst totally different foreign language types like Semitic.
The heavens, the firmament, the celestial sea (cosmos) highest (NAM/NUM>JUM)
Originally both Sumerians and Finno-Ugrians imagined the world to have been created from the celestial/primeval sea. It is from this sea that heaven and earth are created as a united body, which then becomes separated by the birth and expansion of the air god. /10 There are some variations of the story of creation from the celestial sea, in Finnish, Hungarian, Ob-Ugrian but there are also many common features. The creation of the world from an egg is also common, or from land & seed brought up from the bed of the cosmic sea, whose Sumerian name is "nammu".
0)Sumerian nammu =goddess of the celestial sea, mother of the first
gods./10 pg viii,
Sumerian nim =to be high, above, highland, prince, east, flying insect./13pg52
Sumerian an =sky god, chief god originally but later faded in importance.
-Samoyed num (num=sky)/8pg68
-Vogul numi-tarem =the highest god >> sky god, father of the gods/8
-Vogul num=high, numi=highest.
-Ostjak no_, nu_, num [m>ř]=upper part, the top, heaven, sky;
-Lapp jubm-al [m>mb, #n>j] =the high god; /8 pg66
-Finn jum-ala [#n>j] =chief god>god; (ala=place/abode) /8 pg66
-Estonian jumm-al=god [#n>j]; tiavas=sky /8 pg66
-Cheremis jumo=god; juma=sky, chief god [n>j]/8 pg 68
-Zürjen jen =god, jen-es=sky [n>j]/8 pg68
-Samoyed njum /8 pg68 [#n>nj]
-Hungarian nem-es=high born, noble, pure; (meny=heaven.)/19
-Mordvin men-il / Cham-páz (men-il=heaven) /8
--- another variation which is more common in Altaic languages
The spirit, god spirit, life spirit(TING/TENG/DING/TUND +ER)
0)Sumerian tin =live, life, health [ŋ=ng > n] /28
Sumerian ding-ir =god (generic), symbolized by the star (i.e. heavens)/10
Sumerian dungu =cloud bank (<< atmosphere/weather?<< sky?) /28
Sumerian always seems to change medial d to a t, but in this case the
leading vowel may have been lost.
-Hattic (ancient Anatolia) is-tenu =sun god, Sunday (also Hittite) /30
-Hungarian tünd-ér = spirit being, nymph [ng>nd] < godlike being. /19
-Hungarian is-ten-ri? > is-ten =ancient/one god or "iz-ten"=fire or spirit god;
-Hungarian tün = to appear, become visible; tünd-ök= to shimmer,shine.
-Finnish tun-ilma = atmosphere /Finnish-English dictionary
Altaic teng-ri=god, sky; tin =spirits (including god spirits)
-Turkic tin =spirit, including godlike spirits;
3)Dravidian (India) tan-ri = god, sky father.
(tonru=be bright, visible, vision)/21
Sky, High, chief god
( *SANKE > YEN>-ANK>-ÉG , -AN-)
In both Sumerian and FinnUgor the original sky god often delegates to the air
god various tasks of creation and in many examples we see that the
air/weather god replaces the old sky god in importance over time, substituting his original name for the generic word for god at times.
0)Sumerian _an =[ s>ř] up, sky, sky god, father of the gods./10;
Sumerian dingir, dimir =god, symbolized by a star in the sky.
Sumerian imi =wind.
1)Finn-Ugor *saŋe =sky, sky god, chief god (ŋ~nk ) /1,v1,pg138
-Hungarian _ég =sky [*s- >h/ř] [*ŋ>g] /1,v1,pg138
-Lapp an'n'e=weather; jubm-el=god /1,v1,pg138
-Ostjak yen-es=heaven; [s- > y] /1,v1,pg138
-Ostjak yen=chief god, sky god > god [s>y] /1,v1,pg138
-Zürjen syŋ-öd=sky > air /1,v1,pg138
-Votjak _in, inm-in=sky; [s- > ř] /1,v1,pg138
-Votjak _inm-ar=chief god, sky god; [s>ř] /1,v1,pg138
-Finn sää_ =sky>weather; [-N>ř] /1,v1,pg138
2)Altaic [*s>t] teng+ere > teng-ri=sky, chief god
3)Dravidian _an=upper part, an-ar=ascend, vin=sky [s- > ř] /21
-Turkic kök, gök =sky,blue;
-Ancient Elamite kak =sky The Elamites were the eastern neighbors of the Sumerians.
-Hungarian kék, kökény=blue < Turkic loan
-Hungarian _ég=sky < Uralic *saNe /1, v1,pg138
Air-atmosphere, weather, creator god
Air/Damp air, soul, air god
0)Sumerian LIL= breath, wind, to infect, spirit, /10
-Sumerian en-LIL=god of air, spirit, soul, chief god on earth./10
-Sumerian nin-LIL =wife of the air god is also well known as/10
an important creator goddess, her other names nin-ti=goddess of
life/ribb; and nin-hur-sag=goddess of the mountain of heaven/highland.
(of en-Lil) She helps create mankind with the help of Enki, god
of wisdom. /10
1)FinnUgor *lewle =damp air, breath, spirit, soul /1, v2, pg397
-Hungarian lég =atmosphere, levegö= air, lelk=soul, heart./19
-Estonian leili =damp, mist /1,v2,pg397
-Lapp liew'lâ =steam
-Vogul lil = breath; lili=breath, soul./1,v2,pg397
-Zürjen low, lō, lul =air,life,soul,person
-Votjak lul=breath, steam, soul,spirit,heart,life /1,v2,pg 397
Protective & creative spirit, holy spirit
0)Sumerian al-ad =male protective spirit, life force. /28
-Sumerian al-aŋ (ŋ=ng) =the image, statue (of an idol) /
-Hurrian hal-di=chief god of Urartu /
-Hurrian halul-i/e=ceremony /23
1)Ugrian *ale(tte) =to bless, to stick to. /1 pg81
-Cheremis ult-ém=to pray /1 pg81
-Hungarian ál-d=to bless, üld-öz=to persecute, pursue./1pg81
-Hungarian ál-d-oz-at =a sacrifice (originally to an idol or god)
-Hungarian él-et=life. /19
-Hungarian al-ak =a form, an image, a likeness. /19
Weather, sky, creator god
-Chuvash to_ra=god, sky-heaven [?ng>ř]<< from *tengri or from FU or Scythian /8 pg67
Hattic tar=sky & weather god
Scythian TAR as in Tar-gi-tar- =sky god who is father to man.
Wind/storm god (NIMUR/NIMRUD/NEMERE)
0)Sumerian imi, im = storm, weather, wind, direction. [*ilm> im]
Sumerian ni-im-ur-ta >>[m>n] ninurta="frightful storm + hero-giant ", the storm god
which became Nimrud of the Bible. [ilm>im]
-Hungarian nem-ere (north wind in Transylvania)>Nimrod the
ancestor of Hungarians, Huns and various Iranian groups according
to Hungarian mythology.
-Finn ilma-ri-nen, ilmar =wind, storm, weather> smith god/3pg227
-Lapp alm-ba, abme/3pg228
-Votjak inm-ar =air-sky god, in(m)=air-sky, [ -l>n]/3pg228
-Vogul ilem =air-sky /3pg228
-Ostjak item=air-sky [l > t] /2pg228
Nimrud the old Sumerian strom god (Ninurta) in Assyria was later associated
with the sun < heat and in Hungarian mythology
the father of various nations. The other meanings were more because of other Mesopotamian influence.
Sumerian nam =type, kind, sex. /19
Chaldee nim-ra= nation, clan (of common blood)
Hungarian nem-z-et=nation, clan (of common blood) /19
Hungarian nem =type, kind, sex; nem-z-=procreate./19
1)FinnUgor/Uralic *kac'a=young male (unattached) /1, v2,pg306
Ugrian *ku =young man, twenty. /1, v2,pg311
Samoyed kod, kotje, keec'=worker./1, v2,pg306
Hungarian hös' =hero; /1,v2,pg306;
Hungarian husz-ár = soldier>horse-soldier.(Europeans borrowed this from Hungarian)/19
Hungarian husz=20;/1, v2, pg311
Hungarian kusz =crawl on all fours (all twenty fingers and toes)/19
Hungarian kend = a title a traditional Hungarian wife used to call her man.
Hungarian katona =soldier, warrior. [c'>t] /19
Hungarian had = unit of soldiers,army; had-boru > háboru=war;
Turkic gazi =hero, ( a loanword from Semitic?, which got it from Sumerian.)
3)Dravidian gandu =man, male, husband, manliness, strength, bravery etc./21
Dravidian kantan =warrior, husband /21
Goddes of dawn/birth/mother goddess
0)Sumerian gúl-a =creator/mother goddess (once 3rd in rank of gods)
-Sumerian ba-ú = mother goddess, great mother, giver of life, food,
-Sumerian baba =another title of Baú the giver of life.
-Sumerian Ba-ú + dug =BAU the glad/sweet>> Hungarian bodog=glad/happy?
-Sumerian Gal-ama=great mother; (Gal=big, ama=mother)
-Sumerian Gúla=life giver; BA-ú =giver of food etc, all same.
-Vogul Kal-tës ankw, mother of 7 gods, wife of the sky god, recorder of fate./8 pg84
-Votjak Kil-d-isin ="birth giving great mother", creator; (isin?aszony)
-Mordvin Ange patáy =great mother goddess/8pg109,107
They painted eggs to her honor in Spring.
-Mordvin Pakse patáy = 3rd daughter of the mother goddess, gardens & plants.
-Ostjak (northern) Puges =mother goddess.
-Hungarian Nagy Boldog-asszony, also called Baba, Báb
-Hungarian Bódog =happiness, plenty, pregnant, name of the great mothergoddes..
3)Dravidian >>Hindu Kali =the black goddess of birth and death.
The early Indo-Europeans, (Greeks, Romans, Romance, Germanic people) the ancestors of most European languages except Hungarian, Finnish,
Estonian, Basque and many dead languages, had no goddesses except the goddess of dawn. They adopted local goddesses later after settling
amongst other cultures. Thus their goddesses are unrelated to one another between different branches of the Indo European language tree.
0) Sumerian dingir In-ana =goddess of love and war, fertilizing
young goddess, Venus. A heavenly goddess, younger daughter of the moon god.
1) Hungarian szép asszony ="beautiful", youngest of the daughters of
Nagy Asszony. Under Christianity she became demonized as a troublemaker.
-Hungarian tündér Ilona =queen of the fairies (?) [ dingir/dimir > tündér]
Ilona is the Europanization (Helen) of the old name Ilma =air?
(NAJ > NAJ+PI > NAP/NAB/NEBO)
2) Altaic ??(only in Japanese?)
-Old Japanese nop.u =day >> no (nipon >> nihon) [*p>h]
3)Dravidian anapu =fire, heat; nipp=to kindle; nep=burning coal./21
-Egyptian nab= sun,golden < light/fiery color; /22.
------- other names for the sun/time god. -------
-Sumerian utu =sun god, time god; sun of the moon god;/L379; 2pg475 < ?hud=bright
-Sumerian id4=month; / t>s izi=fire;
-Turk-Uigur ödü,udu =time, sun; /3 pg 319
-Turk-Chagatai öt =sun /3 pg319
-Hungarian idö =time, (+járás)=weather /19 << ?Turkic or Scythian loan
-Scythian oeto -syr(us) =sun god /Herodotus, "Scythians",5th cent BC
Sometimes Magor is also called a "sun god" in today's Hungarian literature, this is doubtful since it is based more on the Greek "Makar" than it
is on Hungarian! Magor meant seed, semen originally not the Sun. The following links are much closer in meaning. The progenitor/ancestor
god Magor also brings up the seed of life from the bottom of the celestial sea in old Hungarian legends./Magyar Adorjan.
In FinnUgor *muŋke =seed, semen, self, which has its Dravidian equivalents also. In ObUgrian Meŋke is the god of hunting,forrest and
protector of man. As a progenitor of man Nimrod also seems to be closely linked to the ObUgrian Meŋk in meaning and function. "Nimrod, great hunter before the lord" is stated in the Bible. Yet in Chaldean and other early Mesopotamian Nim means progenitor as it also does in Hungarian and even in Sumerian it can mean "seeder", "to sow seeds and plant".
(*KUNKE > KUL >HOD/HOLD)
0)Mesopotamian ? *ku-na
-Akkadian ku =moon/6
-Sumerian _id 4,8, =moon, month, moonlight [k>h>ř]
-Sumerian had =to shine brightly [k>h]
-Sumerian na-na =moon god< related to Ugrian naj< /STRONG > =sun/fire /10
yet it strangely resembles the reduplication of the Ugrian term for sun/fire-light, which is "nay" > naynay> na-na.
-Sumerian zu-en >> enzu =wise lord, title of the moon god./10
1)FinnUgor. *kuŋe =moon. /1, v2,p288
-Mordvin Názárom paz=winter, night, moon god/8 pg105
-Hungarian hold anyó=old moon woman.
-Hungarian hav>hó-d, ho-ld=moon, ha(v)=month; while hugy< /STRONG> =star.(archaic)/19
-Samoyed ki =month /1,v2,pg288
-Finnish kuu =moon /1,v2,pg288
2) Altaic ??
-Mongol _od =moon.
Star/heavenly body0)Sumerian háda, had2 = to shine brightly [k>h]
Earth Goddess, had strong presence in early agricultural cultures (KIL>KI>HEL')
0) Sumerian ki=earth, early earth goddess, place/town, great below as in
opposition to AN=above./10
Sumerians also immagined that the original state of the universe was that heaven and earth were united in a form called ANKI, which was also solid matter. This term may actually have derived from the ancient Finnugor term for the goddes of earth/matter Ha ANKW. Sumerian kal-ama =the land/country of Sumeria."great/big land". Sumerian ma =land and a locative suffix
1)FinnUgor ki, kil =place, town, locality
-Vogul joli torrem = "lower" goddess, referring to earth being below in opposition to heaven.
-Ostjak ha ankw =mother earth ( K>H) ha=earth, ankw=mother.
-Finn maan emö =mother earth; maa(n)=land, earth; emö=mother.
-Hungarian hely =place, town, locality.
Place/earth/land (MAA/ MADA/MATA/MEGYE)
0)Sumerian ma, ma-da=land/teritory; (MAA based words)
1)FinnUgor maa, moda =earth;
-Mordvin mastir-páz = earth goddess (ma=earth) /8 pg 108
-Hungarian _vid-ék [ -m> -v] =countryside, internal m often changes
to v or zero.
Mongol natigai=earth goddess, the earth /Marco Polo
Water/River god (*YOKI /YO /IA)
The old god of magic and prophecies has been lost in many cultures and has only
faint echoes of what they originally were. Such is the case of the
Finnish HISI, which has become a god of the underworld and a devil. Similarly in Hungarian the God Damacsek, Darama has become Drumo
and also demonized by the Christian church, but originally was beneficial. A rather strange association of water and rivers, with prophetic and magical insight also is paralleled in Sumerian.
0)Sumerian ia = river god, god of wisdom; [y>ř]
Sumerian id, i7 = river [*s>ř]; /L579; 2 pg239
-Sumerian en-ki =god of "wetlands", wisdom, crafts, shamanism etc.the source of the rivers, beneficial and protector of man. /10
ene+YOKI >ENE_KI > ENKI. (EN=important ruling title)
1)FinnUgor *wete = water ( -t >z in Hungarian
FinnUgor *sid =brook /1, v3, pg659
-? wed-páz ="water-god" (wed=water)
-Finn wed-en emä =water spirit (female);
-Finn ah-ti =water guardian, water god./
-FinnUgor *yo-(ki) =river, /1,v2,pg339
-Hungarian yos' =magic, prophet, etc; /3 pg
-Hungarian -yó =river suffix, good, right etc./1,v2,pg339
-Hungarian ügy =small river [d'>l>gy] << F.U. *sid'
(BAU/BABA/BAU+DUG/BODOG & ASAN/GASAN)
-Sumerian gasan =queen, lady (in Emesal dialect) /
-Sumerian BA-Ú =goddes mother, provider, fertility, life giver
(ba=give+ú=herb/grass). Often shown in association with canines and birds.
-Sumerian důg = sweet, good, beautiful, lap, loins, member; dug4=sex;
-Elamite asan =goddess.
-Hurrian aste =wife; as'ti=woman;
-Akkadian asatu =wife
-Hungarian gyümölcsolto Boldog Asszony =fruit grafting B.Asszony.
-Hungarian sarlós Boldog Asszony = B. Asszony of the sicle.
-Mordvin Paksä Pát'áj =goddes of gardens /8 (3rd daughter of Ange Pat'aj)
-Hungarian asszony =queen (archaic meaning), today its married woman./26
Simlarly Mr or my husband uses the term Uram = my lord. Both show respect to each other.
-Balkar Turk goshen =lady,
Avar-hun & turkic katun =queen
-Turkic/Hun asena = totemic mother goddess ( a "royal" wolf)
The loss of the leading K in Hungarian is of concern. It most likely is due to foreign influence rather than a natural evolution , since then it
would sound more like haszony rather than asszony. Hmm this actually has special meaning and goes back to the head mother of the house/clan
as (ház+anya) > _azany > asszony. This is a pure guess, no proof. I am very aware of the supposed Alanic origin of the Hungarian word
asszony, but I don't agree with it as there is plenty of FinnUgor possibilities of its origins.
Or perhaps Sumerian could have a compound word
( ge=female)+as-an >> g-asan.
God of forrests/hunt/clan *MENG?
0) Since Sumerians moved to a dry arrid place in S.Messopotamia, where there
were no forrests, like back in their land of origin in the
north, the forrest god was forgotten.
-Finn Tapio =forrest guardian, /17
-Finn Hiisi =forrest spirit ( in stagg form)/17
-Mordvin Werjä Pát'áj =forrest /8
-Mordvin Welen Paz = ancestor of man, clan god/8pg98
-Ob Ugrian (Vogul, Ostjak) Meang = forest and clan god; /8
-Ob Ugrian mos', man's' =man, patriarch./8; 1,v2,pg415
-Hungarian Magor = mythical ancestor god, but not a forest god; /8
*MuNke > Magur=seed/semen while Mon's' > Maz > Magy+ar refers to noble
-Finnish veine MON-en =ancestor of man, progenitor of man, a giant who reaches to the sky, the creator of land from the egg
of the giant eagle, but the seabed is another source of land in other Finnish myths. Finnish veine = Hungarian vén=very old./17
2)Altaic *men'o= self, body./18
3)Dravidian mekaga=egg, meni< /STRONG> =body shape,
Sumerian me =prince, king, young man./
Ugrian mos, man's' =man, high born /3
Hungarian magy-ar < Moz-er < Mos = Hungarian, but once only refered to the ruling clan. [n's' >s >gy]/1 v2, pg415
Dravidian mas =man, husband /21
Clan ancestor,elder,clan god (*SONKE > -UK/UGU)
0)Sumerian _ugu4, _ugun=ancestor of the clan
-Sumerian unken=council of elders.
1)FinnUgor *sonke =old >very elderly.
-Hungarian _agg =elderly bachelor (single) [*s- >ř]
-Finnish ukko =name of the chief god, as the oldest and founder.
-Hungarian ük =ancestor.(great great grandparent)
-Uigur Turk okan =god
-Turkmen aga=elder brother
-Mongol aga=elder brother.
-Tunguz aga=elder brother.
First man is the son of the air god (ELM-PI, EMB-ER)Finn elm-pi="son of air", man /8
In Sumerian man was created from clay by the water god, rather than from air by
the air god. This is the source of the bible creation of man from clay. However
what most people miss in their translation of Sumerian is that the word
for clay, mud, rain in the word "imi, im" is that it also means storm, sky! I
just noticed this myself. However man is not called by this term in Sumerian
but the etymological meaning link exists. In some Sumerian variations of the
creation of man the air god does create man.
(GUD-ER/HAD-UR and GUD-BIR/ HAD-BORU> HÁBORU)
0)Sumerian ner-gal >? ere-gal ="great prince", war god, also the king
of the underworld.
-Sumerian gud2 =warrior. [k>g];
-Sumerian gud-bir=war /
1)FinnUgor/Uralic *kunta =clan, /1,v2,pg238
Ugrian *khont =soldier < young clansman./1,v2,pg238
-Hugarian Hadur (also clan), not a definite wargod, but
a clan protector. [not sure this is attested in early works.]
-Hungarian katona=soldier, warrior; [nt>tn; k>h]
-Hungarian had [nt>d]= army unit in arms > há_boru=war. [d>ř] /1,v2,pg238
3) Dravidian kant-an=soldier, warrior. /21
In Assyrian, Hurrian?, Scythian, Hun, Magyar custom the war god's symbol is the
sword and the sword was in a sense revered, buried on top of a mountain, with
the point upward. The Scythians and Magyars also bathed it in blood, the
Magyars did this when calling men to arms and no able bodied man could refuse
this call without risking his freedom. The custom of burrying the sword of god
was transplanted to early Britan by the
Yazig (Scythian) cavalry recruited from Pannonia (modern Hungary) by the Romans, to serve in Britain whence they never returned and founded the key centers of this cult there. The sword of king Aurthur called excalibur comes from the Yazig tribal name of "caliburnus", which was also adopted by Latin for the word for steel. /29
0)Sumerian Eres Ki-gal =the goddess of the underworld, elder daughter of
the moon. _Eres-Ki-gal possibly originated from a northern Subarian fertility
goddess, asociated with the burial of seed, who was abducted by KUR. KUR the
giant personification of the underworld, the abode of the dead also called
It appears that Eres-Ki-gal originally was a northern Mesopotamian fertility goddess perhaps representing the buried seeds that are to be germinated in the ground, since the term is also found in early northern Mesopotamia and Akkadian as "eret". Hungarian "ered" =to originate, source of life, to spring out of the ground as plants do.
Dragon (associated with rain, storm and fertility & wisdom)
-Hungarian sár-kány=dragon (Turkic origin of the word), a fertilizing sign associated with rain,
flood and rivers; (in stories it is sometimes given a form of man also, one who fertilizes, impregnates.)
-Hungarian serken=to grow/flourish/spreading life. (plants)
-Hungarian? St. Imre =male personal name (Emerich), source of name
of America. First son of Hungarian St Stephen (St Imre)
It seems that both north America (Imre > Amerigo) and South America have patron saints from Hungarian soil. What a weird coincidence!
Dragon myths were quite common amongst various groups of nations from
Mesopotamia to the far East as well as the American Indians. In Chinese
mythology the dragon is a helpful and good sign. The Hopi beliefs are quite
similar to these, and the Maya KuKul Kan. "feathered serpent" is also
The Germanic people also had them, but they were normally destructive just as the Biblical versions,
in contrast to these.
In Hungarian tradition the dragon is related to both fertility of plants and animals and to floods and rains and isn't all bad, but has been influenced by other European versions of the legend so that there are plenty of bad dragons also.
Devil death demon
0) Sumerian does change L occasionally to R /
Sumerian kur=the underworld and it's personification./10pg76
-Sumerian kur-na-gea ="land of no return", the underworld./10
-Sumerian gala =demons of death [k>g] /Deimel SL1934, 125.1
-Sumerian hul =bad, evil, malicious, to destroy, ruin [k>h]
-Sumerian hil-ib = the netherworld, world of the dead. [k>h]
-Finn kolja=devil; kuole-ma=death.
-Votjak kil =devil
-Vogul kul'-ater =the king of the devils, kul=devil; /8pg125
-Ostjak kolj =devil/3pg197
-Zürjen kolj=devil/Bárczy M.Sz.Sz.pg 107/3pg197
-Cheremis ker-emety =devil /8pg125,126
-Hungarian hal-ál=death [k>x>h], /19
-Hungarian kár=harm, damage; kór=desease;/19
-Mongol kör-mög =evil spirit./3 pg240
(Hungarian kör-möc =a type of devil.)
-Sumerian udug =demon/L577; 2pg237; udu=pit.
-Hungarian ördög =devil/8pg127; odu =a hole, tree hollow.
-Turkic ertenk =devil (in Uigur Manichean texts, Kirghiz)/8pg127
Hungarian normally changes the leading F.U. *s to nothing, sometimes to an
example: FinnUgor *saŋe > _aŋ > ég (since ŋ normally changes to g)
Similarly an archaic term for faith, trust > religion as in Sumerian is zid.
-Sumerian zid=belief, faith, good, true; [-*t>d], zi=spirit (of life), soul.
-Hungarian hit=belief,faith,religion [s>h];
-Hungarian szit- =a curse, a prayer.
Shadow spirit (ISI > IZ I or ZI/ZU/IZ)
0) Sumerian zi, su=spirit, breathing, breath, soul/3pg137
-Sumerian zi(d) or zi+gal =sexual ardor, "heavy breathing" [k>g] /16
1)Ugrian *isi =shade, shadow spirit. (stays close to the body)
-Old Hungarian iz =shade, the shadow-spirit (modern szel-em)
-Hungarian zi-hál=heavy breathing [k>h] [iz>zi]
-Ostjak is =shadow-spirit /3pg136
(MUL > MU, MU-d )
0)Sumerian mu_=to create magic [-l>ř] /3pg151
Sumerian nudi mud =one of the titles of enKi the god of wisdom,magic,
and protector of mankind.
-Vogul mul =the enchanting word /3pg151
-Ostjak mul =the enchanting word/magical word /3pg151
-Cheremis müz'an=magician /3pg151
-Hungarian mü =creation - act, art /3pg 151
-Hungarian bü =magic [m>b] < Turkic influence.
-Turkic bilga =wise
-UigurTurk bö-gi=able, wise /3pg 151
-Chagatai bögü =enchant /3pg 151
-Cuman bogo =prophet /3pg 151
-Mongol büge =shaman. /3pg 151
Oracle, prophet, magician
(URAS / ARWIS / ORVOS & VARIS/VARÁZS)
0)Sumerian gurus, uras, urus =oracle [g>h>ř]
-AncTurk arwis=to create magic,
-Chagatai turk arbag-c'i=magician. [w>b]
-UigurTurk arvis-c'i =master of magic.
-Hungarian kuruzs-lo=an archaic priest type >> a man asking for alms.
-Hungarian varázs-lo =magician
-Hungarian orvos =doctor << ancient priest type.
Wise man > shaman
demigod of life/resurection/shepherds >> spring
In Mesopotamian languages Tamuz became synonymous with the spring months.
Sumerian Dumuzig =demi-god of resurrection, spring.
Hungarian medial M often becomes V, so that Tavasz =spring time (Tamuz >Tavasz)
Ceremony, Ceremonial Plaza, place of sacrifices and worship
0)Sumerian tir-azag=holy plaza, place of worship
Sumerian tir=forrest grove, thicket (of plants, trees)
1Ugrian tir =holy glen, place of worship.
-Ostjak tir =holy glen of birch or pine trees, where often they would carve
a pole from one to represent the world tree, which is then used by the
holy spirit to settle on to watch and partake of the offerings.
-Hungarian tér =plaza (lost its ceremonial links)
Hungarian tor=ceremonial feast in honor of the spirit of the animal which was killed. (In modern usage its a wake and also the custom of the feast after the butchering of the pig.)
1)Hungarian lakoma=a great feast in honor of someone or something.
Hungarian lak-ni=to eat until one is full.
3)Dravidian (India) lakana =sacrifice after a good hunt. /21
Sacrificial offerings and assosciated ceremony.
0)Sumerian zur = to give blessing, to sacrifice, to hold a ceremony./29
Sumerian zur-ra =make noise, be loud, etc./29 [l>r]
1)FinnUgor *s'oj-et=loud, noise./1
-Hungarian szer = a ceremony./19
-Hungarian zaj =noise
-Hungarian zör- =noise, make noise, racket, be loud>>rites, exorcism./19
-Hungarian szer-da< szer-eda< szer-idö=Wednesday, the ancient day of sacrifice/worship./19
Holy day, holiday (UNU /ÜN+nep)
0)Sumerian ůnu =holiday feast./28
-Sumerian un-ug=elevated shrine.//28
1) FinnUgor ??
-Hungarian ün+nap >"holy+day"> ünnep =holiday, celebration.
also possible that it comes from üd-nap > ünnep. (üd=sacred)
0)Sumerian a-kal =curse /16
-Hungarian ás'-kál =to plan revenge. (kál=suffix of continuous doing)/19
Tabu (AZAG/ SZEG-ni)
Sumerian azag =tabu /28
Hungarian szeg-ni=to break a tabu, a law, or command./19
1) Lako & Rédei, "A Magyar Szókészlet Finnugor Elemei", Budapest 72.
2) René Labat, Manuel D'Épigraphie Akkadienne, Paris, 1963.
3)Dr Varga Zsigmond, "Az ösmagyar mitologia szumir és
Ural-Altaji öröksége" Debrecen 1955. Reprinted in San Francisco by Fabo László.
4)Dr Bobula Ida, "The Great Stag a Sumerian Divinity", Buenos Aires, 1953.
5)Dr Zakar András, "A Sumér Hitvilág és a Biblia", Garfield, New Jersey, 1973.
6)A.H. Sayce, "Astronomy and Astrology of the Babylonians", 1874
7)Ipolyi Arnold, "Magyar Mytologia", Pest, 1854.
8)Kandra Kabos, "Magyar Mytologia", Eger 1897.
9)Dioszegi Vilmos, "A pogány magyarok hitvilága", Budapest1983 (on shamanism)
10)Samuel Noah Kramer, "Sumerian Mythology", Philadelphia1972
11)László Gyula, "Különvélemény ösvallásunkról", Budapest, 1994.
12)Komoroczy Géza, "Gilgames Agyagtáblák Üzenete", Budapest1974.
13)Coloman-Gabriel Gostony, "Dicionnaire D'Etymologie
Sumerienne et Grammaire Comparée", Paris 1975.
14)Fehér Jenö, "Középkori magyar inkvizicio", Buenos Aires, 1967
(Inquisition of the middle ages, church documents.)
Books on folklore can often uncover new facts about the old myths.
15)Dömötör Tekla, "Magyar Népszokások", 1972.
16)Edmund Gordon, "Sumerian Proverbs", New York, 1968
17)Juha Pentikäinen, "The ancient religion of the Finns"
18)Sraostin's webpages Altaic database,
19/Országh, Magyar-Angol kéziszotár.
20/Friedrich, Zu den kleinasiatischen Personennemen mit dem Element muwa,
KIF I (1930), 366.
21/Burrow & Emenau, "A Dravidian Etymological Dictionary", Oxford, 84.
22/Wallace Budge, "An Hieroglyphic Dictionary", Dover
23/Die Urartäische Sprache, 1971
24/E.A. Speiser, American Oriental Soc., "Studies in Hurrian Grammar",
25/E.A. Speiser, American Oriental Soc., "Notes on Hurrian Phonology",
26/Györfi György, "István Király és Müve", Budapest, 1983
27)George Barton, "Miscellaneous Babylonian Inscriptions", Yale
28)John Halloran, "Lexicon of Sumerian Logograms",
29/Helmut Nickel, "The Dawn of Chivalry", article in The land of the Scythians,75
30/Manfred Lurken, "Lexicon der Gotten und Demonen", Stutgard, 1984