ETRUSCAN DICTIONARY

Etruscan orthography uses
A, C, E, V, Z, H, TH, I, L, M, N, P, R, S, SH, T, U, PH, X, F
There was however no O, B, D, G, J or Y, W in Etruscan.

A

Etrusc word

translation

source

 

FinnUgor , Ugrian, Hungarian

aberas

April

dhs

 

 

ac

to make, to offer, to act

pcr

 

-og =verbal suffix of doing.
–ács = trade suffix or roofer.

ac
akl-xis

point
sharpness

ma, az 96

 

  *soηke >>_ék =wedge
ιl=sharp kιs=knife

acale
ac_l-us

June (month)

dep, pcr, pa

 

Kel=to arise, also linked to Kaltes=goddess of dawn, birth./ugrian

acal-ve

in June (-ve=innesive suffix)

dhs

 

 same as above

acas

to make, to sacrifice
to make, to present, to offer

dep
pa

 

 kész-it=prepare, make /Hu

aca-thur

boy

pa

 

ki-s=small or -ke=diminutive suffix
+*dhur > gyer-mek=child/Hu

aca-z_r

objects offered in the tomb
offers

pcr
pa

 

 to make a ceremony.
csin-ál + szer=ceremony.

ac_n-s

terror, veneration;

ma

 

 *aηke >> agg-(od)-os =worrying kind

acni-vers

cremation (verse=fire) > Latin igni-s

 

 

 *äηε = burn >> ιg =burn

axapri

jug

dhs

 

 kopor-so = casket or funerary urn.

ac-il

producer, potter (-il =deverbal suffix)

dhs

 

 agy-ag=clay  (-ag=noun formative & make)

ac-nanas

begot, bore  (m~n namas > nanas)

dhs

 

 -nem-ez, nemz =to procreate
 nemz-et =extended family, nation.

ain-eri

to be worshipped, a singer (religious)

az

 

 *äne = noise, sound, voice >>
  én-ek=song, én-ek-es=a singer.

ais

god

dep, pcr, pa, dhs

 

*iće/Ugor =shadow spirit >>iz , isi=spirit, ghost in

ais-iu

divine, of the gods (-iu =genetive (of) ?)

pcr

 

 -nak = genetive << FU *na 
isten-I =godly

ais-na

divine, of the gods (-na=genetive)
sacrifice, ritual

pcr, pa
dhs

 

is-ten=god + nek=genetive of. = of god

ak

αk- or ag- =to drive, to conduct

az96

 

*äjä = to chase , to drive animals > haj-t

ala
sv-al-ce

vital,lively, moving,boldly;
he/she live-d (-ce=past tense)

ma

 

*elä = live , life > él=live, él-sz =you live

al

to make (e.g. a vase)
to give, to offer
to give, to offer, to donate
al-=to offer up a prayer

dep
pcr
pa
mp68

 

 *ale > ál-d-oz =sacrificial offering, sacrifice.

ali-ce

gave, dedicate-d (-ce =past tense)

dhs

 

 áld(oz)ik /Hu << *ale /FU

alice
aliqu

to make;
made, given [mc91]?

mc 91

 

 alkot=create, make
 alak =a form, like a statue also, an unknown person

ali-xa

gift, present (-xa=deverbal)

dhs

 

 áld-ás=blessing

-alx

10; > Latin lege-re;

ma

 

*luke- == figure, count, number, 10

al-ś+ase

alsi-um, low-er-southern Etruria
(-um=adj)

ma

 

also =lower;
*ala=lower +*as’e=settlement/FU

al-pa-n
al-pnu

gladly, willingly (syn. of alpnu)
gif-t, offer-ing, willingly (-an=adverbal)

dep
pcr, pa, dhs

 

 *ale > áld =blessing or sacrificial
+bol-(dog)-an=happyly

al-phaze

type of magistrate
offering (phase = an urn type?)

dep
pcr, pa

 

 áld- =sacrific-al
+faz-ék = pot, vessel

al-um-nathe

sacred society (al=dedicate +um=adj + ?

pcr

 

ál-d-ozat-os

am

to be (*m~w)

dep, pcr, pa, dhs

 

*wole > vala > van =to be

ama
im-le

now, meanwhile [az96]
at the same time

az 96

 

ma =today, maj-d=later. most=now
ime =thus here it is? (also Altaic ime=now)

ama-ke,
θ_r+ama

spouse, married;
storage woman;

ma, az 96

 

*emä == wife , mother , female
*kata=house,home > ház
tár =storage

am-e

type of offering

dep

 

 ima=prayer ?

am-pile

(in) May (month)

dep, pa

 

 

_an

he, she

dep, pcr, pa

 

*san >>_ö_=he,she; ön (formal)/Hu

_ani

sky god, Janus, the god of the highest sky.
January.

ma

 

*säηe >> _ég =sky; in-mar=god/Zurjen

an-pilie

in May  (pil, bel= inner, innesive)

dhs

 

 *säηe >> _ég =sky;  s//#_  
+ *pälse = inside

anxe

anxious; ac-ns =terror

 

 

*aηke == to become anxious , distress ,
torment , worry >> agg-od

apa

father

dep, pcr, pa, dhs

 

apa =father, apo=elder male < U.A.

apas

father in law (apas tanasar=fathers relatives)

ma

 

apos =father in law < *appe

apa-na

pater-nal, fatherly (na= genetive)

pcr, dhs

 

*appe+*nä >>apá-nak, apa-i =father+genetive (of)

apice

capture, attainment (pa>ap)

az96

 

*päηe = hold , keep , grab/Ugrian
fog=hold, keep, grab

apc-ar

abacus  (-ar=deverbal suffix)

dep, pcr, pa

 

 

apir-ase

in April (-us, ase =innesive suffix)

dhs

 

 

ar-

to make, to move, to build (ar-chitect?)

pcr, pa

 

ör=make, to do/Turkish (dialect)
yar-at=to create/Turkish; gyárt/Hungarian

ar- (1)
ra-pa

cut
engraving, writing [*w>p]

ma

 

*šure >>ir-t =cut down; arat=reap
ir =to write; < Chuvash sir
róv =to engrave, runic writing.

_ar-ce

raised (children)

 

 

 *säre >> ér=to reach,ripen,become mature
+ (child?)

_ar-ce

reached, attained  (-ce= terminative suffix)

ma

 

*säre >> _ér=reach, attain, ripen;
ér + deverbal ( -t, r, k, m) + ig= terminative suffix.

arce

mothers relations

ma

 

ara=bride, rok-on
< *ar-ap=relative on mothers side/Ugrian

*ar-im

monkey (?-im=deverbal)

dep, pcr, pa

 

 

ar-na

to afflict, affliction;
(-na= deverbal)

ma

 

ár-ta-NI =to affict, to hurt < FU

ars

to turn away, to remove
to push away

dep, pa
pcr

 

 

arus ame
arusia
arvasa

to encourage;
exhortation, push /Etruscan [az96]
having pushed, driven, raised /Etruscan

az 96

 

erö =strength, power; erös=strong, powerfull.
erö-l-tet=to force, push for

ar-ta

"breaker, smasher" > "carpenter (Vulcan)"

az 96

 

ár-t =injure, hurt, destroy
ártó =one who hurts, destroys.

arthe vel-na

one who severs, cuts off

az 96

 

 ir-t=to exterminate, to cut down; arat=to reap.

as

to offer, to give [ t>s ?]

dep

 

 *äčä = love, desire?ás=to desire >> áskál=scheme /Hu

ase
asi

breath, wind, soul
inspiration, spirit, wind

az 96

 

 iz =shadow spirit of the body, like but not same as the soul since it dies with the body, but can leave it << *iće=shadow (spirit)

aska

leather container
(loanword from Gk. askos)
type of vase

dep, pa
pcr

 

 Greek loan

asu, ašu

burial

 

 

 *śuG-er ==a grave (-er deverbal)
>> sír=grave;

at

to make a ritual action, to offer

dep

 

*ale>áld =to bless /Hu

ate-na
ate-na

father (-na pronomial marker)
of the same father, clan (-na =genetive)

ma
az 96

 

*atta /UA, Dravidian >>atya = father ,also atyá-nak =of the father.

athe-mic-a
athu-mic-a

relatives ("of mother’s people")
(–a = possessive genetive?)

dhs

 

(ati=mother,woman)
+ mag, magyar =people + é=possesive

ateri

one who is irritated

 

 

*tor-ke- == punish , quarrel, fight
>> dor-gál =to punish verbally.

athre
atri-um

atrium (loanword to Latin)
building atrium, hall
hall entrance (-um=deverbal)

dep
pcr, pa
ma

 

  ter-em = large hall < *tir =ceremonial place, tor=ceremonial wake.

ati

mother

dep, pcr, pa, dhs

 

Finnish äiti=mother
Turkish ede =mother
??édes anya??

ati-vu

mother, 'mummy'
stepmother (-u =affectionate, endearing ending name for a parent, by a child)

pcr
dhs

 

apa=father > ap-u =daddy, pappy
anya=mother > any-u=mummy

ati nac-na

grand-mother (–na=pronomial marker)

pcr, pa

 

(ati=mother) + nac=nagy=grand +anya=mother

atran

type of priest

dep

 

 tir =ceremonial place. /Ugrian >tér

aur

ear, hearer? [az96]

az 96

 

ér-ez =feel, sense (-ez =frequentive,)
ér-t =understand

auri-na

town >> Latin Urbs (-na =locative suffix)

mp68: 192

 

uru-as=city > város /Hungarian
para, phara settlement, village/Thracian

av

to desire [p>v]

az 96

 

ep-ed =to long for, desire

av-il

year
years
Lemnian avi =year.

dep, pcr, pa
dhs

 

FU *ika  >> [-k>v] év =year/Hu
av-ul=get old; av=old
Hurrian savil

avil-xa

year-ly, annu-al (-xa=terminative ?)

dep, pa

 

év-el =with each year
év- ig=till the year ( -ig = terminative)

avu-la

grandfather

ma

 

av-ul, év-ül =get old, get years; av=old

aus-az

eager, desirous [az96]

az96

 

üz =to chase after a woman.

 

 

 

 

 

 

B did not exist in Etruscan and early FinnoUgrian, and early Sumerian.

C
at the start of the word, meaning the first consonant in a word, is normally like a K,
but as a second consonant internally it’s a sibilant or palatized c (ch)   or even dj,
unless the protoword is a geminated KK. Since intervocalic K in Hungarian
disappeared and ch can become gy,  except in later loanwords or suffixes

Etrusc word

translation

source

 

FinnUgor , Ugrian, Hungarian

-c

and

dep, pcr, pa

 

s’, és’

-ca

the

dep

 

az =the

ca

this

dep, pcr, pa

 

*et > ez

calu

infernal demon

ma

 

*kulja =demon, angry ghost. >> golyho

cal-u

the deceised (-u=participle or deverbal-proffesional/personal marker),

ma

 

*kule= die/FinnUgor
*kal- =to die /Altaic
hal-ot=the deceised /Hu

calu-su

excellent, best (adj suffix)

dhs

 

kellö-s =needed quality, /Hu
kel-me =valued and good cloth./Hu
kelesi= one which is good /Turkish

camthi

magistracy title

dep, pcr, pa

 

Kende=theocratic king/Hu, Central Asia to Manchuria. (mt>nt is attested.)

cana

consecrated objects

dhs

 

kende =theocratic king/Hu

cana

something beautiful (? normally the lead c is like a k?)

az 96, am 91

 

csin-os= attractive, cute looking

cap
qapi

to take away
to grab, take away,

dep
az96

 

kap =to receive, to grabb, snatch/Hu

cape, capi
cupe

vase, container (syn. of capi)
cup

pcr, pa

 

kupa =mug (probably IE)
kab-át=coat, cover; < UA

cape-r

cloak (-r deverbal suffix)

dhs

 

kab-át=coat, jacket;
guba =coursely woven, knoted material coat. << UA

capr

April (month)

dep, pcr, pa

 

 

capra

urn
coffin

dep, pcr
dhs

 

kopor-so=coffin
kupor-og=to be tightly confined.

*capu

hawk

dep, pcr, pa

 

 

car

to build, to make (syn. of cer )

dep, pcr, pa

 

gyár-t=manufacture; gyár=factory
< ?Turk yarat;
kur=to build,make/Turk

cara-ti

affection, esteem (?normally lead c is like k?)

az 96

 

szer-et =love, like;/Hu

caru

cutter, smasher

az96

 

*karte=metal,iron > knife, sword>>kard

cashni
cazni, caz

sharp, cutting

az96

 

*keče == knife , cut >> kés=knife

kar-, kal-
ma-gura

rocky, rocky mountain
mountain, high

az96

 

*kura =mountain, high > -kora=big

cav-atha,
cau-tha,
cavu-tha

deity of heat, fire

ma

 

*kuma > hév =heat, hot
+ atya <
*atta=father
ty=palatized t, which th may represent
hevel=sun/Chuvash Turk << köve?

cautha
cate

sun, sun-god
dawn, sun-god

dep, pa
ma

 

*kadhe = dawn, time >>hol-nap =tomorow.
*dh > l in Hungarian.

cutte

cabin

b/b 128

 

*kata =house,home; kunta =clan >>
ház=house, haza=home, had=clan, army.

cate-cril

return home

ma

 

*kata=house,home > haza =to home
*kere=around >> ker-ül=return-s

catha,
zat

war, (war) prisoner
battle

ma

 

had<< *xont=war/Ugrian
csata=a battle, a war;
kat-ona=warrior, soldier.

cathe

shrewd, intelligent, sly

az 96

 

* kače = able , know, understand >>
okos =wise, smart ( t/z~s/V_V )

cate-na

chain Latin from Etruscan (-na =deverbal)

az96

 

*kitke = (also kütke) tie
>> köt=to tie, köt-él=rope

catu

war

az 96

 

hada-koz =making war, ha(d)-boru=war
( k/h/#_B )

ce-alx

thirty (30)

dep, pa

 

*kul-me >hár-om (root is kal, where l dropped
+ *luke=10,count

cesu

trunk

az96

 

*kiće == small pot, basket >>kos-ár, köcs-ög

ceshu

delays, puts off

az96

 

kiśe == race , contest > kés'- =to be late

cexa

ritual, sacred things
to carry out a ritual
treaty

dep, pcr
dep
dhs

 

kegy tárgy =ritual objects.
Etruscan x = cs or gy in Hungarian.

cexa

care, good will

ma

 

*keje- =mating > kegy=care, good will

cexa,
cexa-na,
cexa-ne-ri

greatest, highest, superior, summit;
(-na=locative, addesive "at")

ma

 

hegy =peak,summit,mountain
<< *kadhj a ==mountain, peak, summit

cexa-se

magistracy title (-se=collective or deadjectival suffix)

pcr

 

hegy –ség= peak+ness > mountain
magas-ság =high+ness

cel

earth, ground, soil

dhs

 

hely =place,location /Hu
< FU *kol'a=dweling

cela

room, cell

dep, pcr, pa

 

hely-ség = large room
< *kol’a [#kB >h]

cel

east "teonimo"

ma, az96

 

kel=arise,born >> kel-et=east, i.e. the direction of the sunrise.
sol=east/Uigur Turk


celi
celi-us

September
in September (-us = innesive "in")

dep, pcr, pa
dhs

 

hal =to die (refering to the death of the year, end of the year "fall")
It appears that Etruskans divided the
year into 6 months like the Sumerians,
since October, November and December are all Latin.

cel 2

a god name

ma

 

kel=arise,ford << *kedhe = arise
Kal-tes=goddes of dawn, birth /Ugrian.

cel-u

sacred offering, holy
priestly title

dep, ma
pcr, pa

 

 -o, -u=professional or participal suffix/Hu family name Kál, Gaál from an old prominent title, meaning large or great or something like that.

celu-ca

interment

dhs

 

hal-om=(burial) mound +og=to do
kalma =burial mound,grave/Finn,Estonian

cemu-

burden, heavy;

ma

 

kem-ény << kämä =hard, tough

cep,
cep-en

priestly title (-en=personal marker)

dep, pcr, pa

 

 

cer, cer(I)-xun

to ask, expect to get;

ma

 

*kerje > kér =ask for, request
+igen=yes,true << *šenke

ceri-xu-nce
ceri-nu

erected, built, had erected

dhs

 

kur=to build, make /Turk 
szer-keszt =to construct /Hu
szer-vez=organize /Hu
szer = a method, a tool, a chemical agent, a rite

ces

to lay, to set down, to establish

dep, pcr, pa

 

 kész-it=prepare, make, establish

ce(I)-s

to lying (down), to exist somewhere;

ma

 

 *kale > hál=rest, lying (down)

cesu

was/were interred

dhs

 

 

cesu

a trunk (as in body or as in a container, casket?)

ma

 

kas =a basket like case,
kosár=basket, köcs-ög=jar.

cesh-u

delays, puts of, one who indulges

ma

 

 *kishe > kés(-ik, -en)=late, delayed; késö =being late

ci
ci

three (3) [ L droped?]
two

dep, pcr, pa, dhs
ma

 

hár-om < *kul-me (me suffix)
két, kettö =two (dropp the endings)

ci-z

three times, thrice or
twice

pcr, pa, dhs

 

3 + szor =3 times
két + szer= 2 times

clan

son

dep, pcr, pa, dhs

 

Some claim this to mean child, & similar to turkish word

c_l-el

in a amicable and beautiful way
(-el=deverbal suffix.)

ma

 

kellö > kelem-es =appropriate, and very comfortable, amicable way.
*kelke > kell=need

c_l-an-ti

adopted son

dhs

 

 kel=to arise, come about ?

cletr-am

basket, tray (-am=adj)
table?

dep, pcr, pa
dhs

 

 

cleva

offer, offering

dep, pcr, pa

 

 

k_l-umi-e

oven's opening [R>L?]

ma

 

*kere=fireplace + *ume=opening/FU

creal

magistrate

dep, pcr

 

kreal /Old Hu > király=king/modern
?? German > Slavic > Hungarian
but found elsewhere and also as govern.

culix-na

vase (-na ?Nominal suffix)
bowl

dep, pcr, pa
dhs

 

kulacs =canteen (normally from wood)/Hu
kullu =big clay pot/Turk


cu-ic-na

stone projectile in a weapon
(-na Nominal suffix?)

ma

 

*kiwe > kö(v)=stone + akna=mine, or in old days a star shaped piercing weapon hidden in the ground, that stabbed the horses or men, that went through it.

cum

man, male (as in lu-cum-u )
>> Latin homo >> English human.

ma

 

 *kojme > him= male,man,male,husband; also Cimmerian "Kim-er", FinnUgor KOMI nationality.
Also Altaic kumun/Mong, kim=man/Turk.

cuś-u
cuś
?cuś-na

patron (-u profession or participle sufx)
to keep one who covers (-na =genetive or personal marker)

ma

 

 *kośśe => gaz-da(g)=rich, owner, proprietor

cv-er

gift (p>v) (-r=deverbal suffix) 

dep, pcr

 

 kap=receive /Hu
kab-ul=receive/Turk

cv-er-a

work of art, sculpture

dhs

 

 

D did not exist in Etruscan and early FinnoUgrian or Sumerian


E

Etrusc word

translation

source

 

FinnUgor , Ugrian, Hungarian

ein

them, they
no, not

dep
pa

 

  -ne-k =suffix for they, -k=plural sfx.
ne,nem =not, no

ei

 absolutive plural

 

 

 -i- objective and absolutive plural
 háza-i-m =my houses.  FU  *j =plural

eis

god

pcr, dep, pa

 

  iz=spirit > is-ten =god

eis-na

divine
(-na =adjectival or genetive suffix?)

pa

 

  is-ten-i =divine

el-
-ala-s, -als

away
away (ablaitive prefix);

ma

 

 *alwe > el-, elve =away  
also used as a verbal prefix.

-el

with (commitative case)

ma

 

-(v)el =with (commitative case)

el-sśi
il-ac-ve

first;
enough, completele + ve =translative

ma

 

 *edhe > el-sö =first + vé=translative
 *edhe = front , lead , forward /FU

eleiv-ana

of oil, oily
container of oil

pcr, dep
dhs

 

olaj=oil  +nak (genetive)
olaj bogyo=olive “oil berry”

elu
elu-, ilu

to offer, to pray
offerings, prayers

pa
?

 

 *ale > áld-oz = sacrifice or sacrifical act.
áld =to bless

elusisnia
ala
eluva

agitation, movement
vital, lively, moving, boldly
the (two) Animators (i.e. the Dioscuri)

az 96

 

 eleven =lively, animated, lots of movements (like children)

emel

to (take by the) handle

az 96

 

 *ale-me > em-el =to lift  

ena

today, now?

dhs

 

 ma =today (m~n)/Hu
 indi=now/Turk

enac
enax

then, afterwards  (m~n)

pcr

 

 majd=then, afterwards (m~n)

ep_l

in, to, up to (pe<>ep)

pcr, pa

 

 *päle > bel =inside;
 be- =into; or to; /Hu
 ben=inside /Hu
 ebin=inner/Turk

ers

to turn away, to remove (syn. of ars )

dep

 

 

esal

two (syn. of zal )

pa

 

szel=to cut (?into two)

eshvi-ta

following, later day (syn. of ishveita )

dhs

 

 second +day (más+ idö=time < day)

eslz

twice

pcr

 

 ?

eta

this

pa

 

*et > ez =this

etera

slave, foreigner, client
member of a class of citizens

pcr, dep, pa
dhs

 

 tér =region, of another region?
 társ=fellow man, comrade;
 törzs=tribe

etera-u

related to strangers

pa

 

 társ-é =comrade + é= genetive (of)

eter-i

slave, foreigner, client

pcr

 

 place + i = of /from the place.

et-nam

and, also

pcr, dep, pa

 

 *et> és =and + nem=type

e-tr

to ? (verb assoc. with sacred actions?)

pa

 

  e=this +tér< religious place

et-va

this

pa

 

 *et > e,ez=this + vé =into (into this?)

 

F

word

translation

source

 

Hungarian < Ugrian <FinnUgor

fas
fashe

relative pronoun

dep
dep, pa

 

 

faś

Latin fasces=an ax sourrounded by
rods indicating unity.

 

 

 *pejche > fejsze =ax

fala-tu

sky (-tu=locative?)

dep, pcr, pa

 

  *pilwa > felhö=clouds, fel-et=above

falu-θ_ras

town community

ma

 

 *palGe > falva, falu=town
+t =accusative suffix
+ rész = part-region

fan

to consecrate

dep, pcr, pa

 

 

fan-u

sacred place

dep, pcr, pa

 

 

farth

to bring

dep

 

 

fartha-na

step? (as in sex farthana "step daughter")
(-na=personal marker)

dhs

 

 

fart-θ-an

to work at hard/ceaselessly (tiredlesly)

ma

 

 *porGe > fárad-t-an=tired

fase

libation

dhs

 

 

fas-le

type of vase (-le=deverbal suffix)

pa

 

 *pata =cook > faz-ék=pot
   (-  ék=deverbal)
   föz=to cook,heat;

fa-vi

grave, ditch (-vi=innesive "in" ?)

dep, pa

 

  fö(l)d-be=in the ground/earth;

fes

to make accounts,
to assure; >> pax=peace

ma

 

 *paćε=trust > biz=trust, safe,certain
  béke=peace

fir

to bring

dep

 

 

fler

sacred statue
offering, sacrifice, libation

dep
pcr, pa, dhs

 

 féle =likeness, replica, half. +er?

fler-e(s)

sacred statue
deity, god

dep,pcr
pa

 

 

f_le-r

statue, image, picture, likeness

ma

 

 *pälä=half,likeness > féle=likeness, replica/half

fler-xva

ceremony, sacrificial rite

pa

 

 

front-ac

fortune teller, seer, interpreter of lightning

dep, pcr, pa

 

 

ful-um-xva

stars (*w>p~f) (-um=deverbal suffix)

dep

 

 *wälke =light  >>vill-ám =lightning

ful-u

smith (type) fire stoker ( -u=participle)

ma

 

 *puje=heat,cook > fül =hot,heat; füt=to heat 

fuflu-na

people (also puplu-na >> people)

pcr

 

 

furth-an

genius (-an=deverbal suffix)

pa

 

agya-furt-an =in a very ingenious way,
"twisted, screwy (mind)"

furt, furt-ce

change (-ce =adj suffix)

ma

 

 *pura > for-d-ul =revolve, rotate,change

 

H
didn’t exist in FinnoUgrian, but Ugrian softened the lead K to a hard H, then Hungarian
to a normal H, but only a lead K when followed by a backvowel a, o, u, ö, while keeping
the lead K when the next vowel was a front vowel e, i. However then the following vowel
was often changed.
  In Etruscan the situation is nearly identical except the back vowel
"a"  is inconsisten, only the proto *o and *u are consistent.  There are a few exceptions
to this, which may have a unique origin.

word

translation

source

 

Hungarian < Ugrian <FinnUgor

ham-pha

right side

dhs

 

 

ham-phe

May (variant of ampile )

dep, pa

 

 

hant-e_

before

pa

 

*kunta=clan territory + elö-t=before

hant-hi-n

in front of (cf. Latin ante )

dep, pcr

 

*kunta =clan, clan territory >> had
+direction

heph
hepe-ni, hep-ni

"to gather, grab, get"
"(one who) finds, gets, gathers

az 96

 

kap =to grab, to get (k/h/#_B )

har ~ hara ~ hurt
ir_ce

to fight, to war
agitated, upset

ma,
az96

 

harc=to fight, battle, to war
har-ag= anger, rage <<*kore =anger

hath-na

happy (+h?)

dhs

 

  ?_üdv-ös =acclamation, cheer, beneficial..

hec

to put, place in front of, to add

dep, pcr, pa

 

hagy=to leave (something), allow, let

hen

leave, let, permit

az96

 

kadj a == leave , let , allow >> hagy =leave, let, permit

hex

to put, to add

pa

 

 _ad=give, ad > adj (sounds like agy)

hera-mas
her-ma

sacred statue
place (l>r), statue

dep
pcr

 

kayra=sacred/Old Turkic
Kwores =sun god, and helper of man/Ob ugrian. + más=likeness, duplicate, immage, 2nd .

herma
hermu

painful, sad;
afliction; (mV=formative)

 

 

_are=rotten,damaged > árt =injure,

her-me

sacred society dedicated to Hermes

dep

 

 kayra=sacred/Trk+max = people
Kwor-es=sun god/Ob Ugrian
the protector, patron of man.

her-mi

August

pa

 

named after Hermes; Kayra + mes=king
"sacred king"

he-va

all, everyone

dhs

 

 ki-vel=with whom?

hil-ar

marked off

dhs

 

  hely =place,location
  + ír=to write, to incise, to mark

hil
c_lu-ven-ias

-=place (in the province)
= in place; [ -*p > -v ] (-ven=inesive)

ma

 

  hely=place, location
  + be-n=in (inessive)

hint-ha

hint-hu

below
below,
infernal

dep, pcr
pcr
pa

 

  *kunta=clan,clan place
+ hal=death, underworld
?where the clan is burried?

hint-hial

soul, ghost, reflection
soul of the deceased, shade

dep, pcr, pa
dhs

 

  *kunta>had "clan place"+
  *kolja =ghost >golyho

hint-hi-n

to depose (down), below

dep

 

 

hiuls

owl

pa, dhs

 

 onomotopeic word "Hu, uhu=owl type

hu-in

spring, well (-in locative?)

dhs

 

 ku-t =well (-t =locative, but considered part of the root.)

hul

stone

az96

 

*kiwe == stone , rock >> köv, kö

hup-ni

sepulchral environment

pa

 

 a variant of capri =coffin, covering
Hu kopor-so =coffin.

hup-ni-na

sepulchral environment;
coffin

pa
dhs

 

 a variant of capri =coffin + na=locative (coffins place)

hus

boy, young man

dep, pcr, pa, ma

 

 * kuća > hies, hes, hös << young man
kizan=young man/Turk

hus-hi-ur

children (ur=plural suffix)

dhs

 

 * kuća > hes=boy + ke=diminutive
+ Turkish –ler=plural suffix.

hush-lna

mug, amphore

dhs

 

 kas, kos-ár =basket or container.
baskets in one language become jugs in another, plenty of examples of that.

husi-na

young person (-na=Nominative suffix)

pa

 

hes =young man. (no nominative)

huz-na-tre

group of youths

pcr

 

 *kuća > hes=young man
+nép =folk/group of people
+társ=companion

huth

six
five

pcr, pa
dhs

 

*kutte > hat =six  

huth-zar

fifteen ( or sixteen)

dhs

 

 hat-szor=6 times,  or hat-ezer=6,000


I

word

translation

source

 

Hungarian < Ugrian <FinnUgor

ia

it

dep

 

 az , a =that, ez, e =this

ic

it
how
like, as, and

dep
pcr
pa

 

a, az, e, ez
hogy =how
igy =like this, as this
és =and

ica

this, that

pa, dhs

 

 *et > ez=this, az=that,
igy=like this, ugy=like that

ikam

oscillating, waving

az96

 

*kumpa =wave, foam > hab =wave,

ilu

to offer, to pray

dep, pcr, pa

 

ál-d =bless,sacrifice (to god)

ilu-cu

a period, part of a month (for sacrifices?)

dhs

 

áld +hava =bless + month /Hu kuu/Finn

in

it
demonstrative and relative pronoun

dep, pcr
pcr

 

 

ipa

this
relative pronoun
whoever, whatever

dep
pcr
pcr

 

*-pa =deverbal that also changed to a present participle.  *pa>va>_ó

ipu

whatever, whoever

pcr

 

 

ish-ve-ita

following, later day (syn. of eshvita )

dhs

 

 és=also +(v)é=translative+idö=time;

is-ter

actor  (ister > hister >history)

pcr

 

 is=ancient,ancestor
+tör-tén=occurred, történ-et=history.

ita

this, that

dep, pa

 

 *it >ez

iθ-al
iθ-ta_

a drink;
drinking vessel

ma

 

 it-al=a drink (-al=deverbal)
 *tale > ito-tál=drinking vessel

itu

to divide
this

dep, pcr, pa
pcr

 

 old=to separate, to unrave, to solve.

ix


ix-nac

it
how
like, as, and
how (-nac= for?)

dep
pcr
pa
dep, pcr

 

ez =this;
hogy =how
és,igy =like this
hogy-an =how (-an= adverbial suffix)


J (a Y sound) did not exist in Etruscan and often the “I” at the start of the word, followed by
another vowel was indicating a Y sound.

Lead K is normally symbolized with a C.


L

word

translation

source

 

Hungarian < Ugrian <FinnUgor

laiva

left side

dhs

 

 sounds like English lef-t ?

lant-neteri

freedman, client

pa

 

 

la-sa

bride, nymph
(angel like beings who observes??)

dhs

 

 lá-ny=girl  (ny=female);
 les=observe secretly

-lat

see, look;

ma

 

 lát =to see, observe< l8ttε=watch, see

lau-c

official title

pa

 

 lov-as, lov-ag =knight, horseman

lau-tun

family, people, nation

pa

 

 lou =he/she in Ugrian + *tuNe > tag=member

lau-tn

family, freedman  > Latin
possession

dep, ma
dhs

 

 *loū == he/she, man + *tuNe > tag
 = member (of family,group)/FU

lau-tn-i

of the family, freedman (-i=genetive (of))
slave

dep, pcr, pa, dhs
dhs

 

 of the family member (-I=of)
 ex: tag-i=to do with the membership (family,group)

lau-tn-i-tha

female slave, ?freedwoman

dhs

 

 

lau-xum
lau-xum-e

king
official title

dep, pcr
pa

 

*edhe >elö =lead
+*kujma >>him =man,male

lau-xum-na

royal, palace (-na=locative?)

pcr, pa

 

 -en, -an=locative, in/at;
Budapest-en =at,in Budapest

lam-tun

shiny >> Latin lantera

az96

 

*lomk = warm , flame , burn , light >>láng=flame

lex-tum

kind of vase
vase for oil

dep, pa
pcr

 

 töm-löc= watertight container made of hides. (metathesis)

lex-tum-uza

vase, little jug (uz=diminutive) –k- >z

pa, dhs

 

 töm-löc-ke =small container

lein

to die

dep, pcr, pa

 

leni=to be, to exist +?

leine

at the age of

dhs

 

 él =live,life + nak/nek=genetive (of)

lein-th

old age, old woman

dhs

 

 le-ni=to exist,live ; lé-t=existance

lensu

slow, lazy > Latin lentus,lentor

az96

 

*lośe = slowly, quitely >> lassu=slow

les

to offer, to give, to sacrifice

dep, pcr

 

 ál-d-oz=sacrifice << *ale

leu

lion

dep, pcr, pa, dhs

 

 a loan

li-ne

living

ma

 

*elä =live >>él-ö =the living
*le=to become >>le-ni=to be, to exist

lu-cair

to rule

dep, pcr, pa

 

 lu =he,she,man + kor-mány = govern
_mány=suffix of collective;

lum

name, thing, deverbal suffix [N>L?]

ma

 

*nime >-lom, -nem =deverbal suffix, name, things.

lup

to die
to have lived

dep, pcr, pa
dep

 

 lap-ul =to lie flat ? (-ul=formative)

lup-u

to die
dead, deceased

pcr, dhs
pa

 

 luppua=to end, terminate/Finnish

luri

brightness (of the stars), adornment

dhs

 

 *jelä= light , day


M
seems to represent not only m in the protolanguage but because  m~w alteratnated
in FU, some W sound became M in Etruscan.
Strangely the M sighn in Hungarian runic means V.

word

translation

source

 

Hungarian < Ugrian <FinnUgor

ma 2

place;

ma

 

<<*maγe == land , earth , territory >>megye=county , place;

mac

five (m~w)

pa

 

*watte=5 >> _öt/Hu

mac_s-trev

name of "magistr"-acy

dep, pcr, pa

 

  mag-as =high + terv=plan (er)

mac_s-tr-na

"aide de camp"

dhs

 

 mag-as =high + terv=plan (er)

mal_

to give, to dedicate (m~w?)

dep, pcr, pa

 

 *walka > ve_sz=take, buy;

mal-ak

votive offering, dedication (m~w?), -ak=deverbal suffix.

pcr

 

 *walka > ve_sz=take, buy;

male-na

mirror (made of bronze) (m~w>) na=genetive or nominative suffix (of)

pcr, pa, dhs

 

*wälke > vil-ág =light, shine >?reflect

mal-str-ia

mirror + (-ia=it?accusative suffix)(m~w?)

dep, pcr, pa

 

 *wälke >vil-ág=light + ? 

man

tomb, grave, gravestone, monument
the dead

dep, dhs
pcr, pa

 

 *man-ala =the underworld >>
Hu man-ó =the devil

mani

the dead
god/spirit of the dead

pcr, pa
ma

 

man-ó=the underworld personified
in FU mytholgy. Finn manala.

man-in

to offer to the dead (-in= dative suffix?)

pcr

 

manó-nak =for/to the devil
(-nak=dative & genetive)

man-im

daughter in law (-im?= possesive pronoun,my)

ma

 

*mińa >>menye=daughter in law
menye-cs-ke=young wife; meny-ém=my wife

_m-ar-ish

(male) boy, baby, youth, bridegroom, servant, slave

dhs

 

 ??em-ber =man,person,people
<< *elm-pi <<air(god)+son


mar-

measure

ma

 

 mér = measure, weigh;
 mér-tan = geometry< *merε == measure , weigh

mar-u

name of a magistracy
chairman of a cultural society

dep, pcr, pa
dhs

 

 mér-ö > mér-nök=civil engineer.

mar-u-nu

name of a magistracy

pcr, pa

 

 mér(ö)-nök =engineer, planner

mas-an
mas-n

name of a month (-an= time locative)

dep, pcr, pa
pcr

 

 

mas-an
meχ

tribe,nation;
people, (also mech, meth)

 

 

* maće =prince, man >>Mozer> Magy-ar
(-ar may have been a plural suffix)

mas-culi-ne-na

mirror (  -na=genetive (of)

pa

 

 más= duplicate, copy of the world of the dead. The other world.
+kola=die/death >> hal=die/death;
+né-z=sees;
+-nak=genetive suffix
The mirror had cultic significance as is shown in the necks of Medieval Hungarian soldiers in the chronicles.

mata

kind of vase

dep, pa

 

 med-er=basin (voiced stops originally were not in Hungarian either.) meder > veder =bucket.
mete,=kind of pot/Turk

ma-t-am

above, before

pcr, pa

 

 *el-ma >>em-el-et =story, elevation. lift up of the buildingl (metathesis)

ma-t-an

in front, over
above, before

dep, pa
pcr

 

 mel-et=besides, next to
 emel-et=raised (story of a building)

math

honeyed (wine)

pcr

 

 *mete =honey >>méz =honey, méh=bee (*t>z)

max

five (M~W)
four

dep, pcr, pa
dhs

 

 *watte >> öt =5

mean

childhood, youth

dhs

 

 mek as in gyer-mek=child.
Also in Celtic mac=son.

m_l
me-ta

breast,chest
beside, next to

az96

 

*mälke = breast, chest
>> mell=breast, melet=besides,next to

men

offer

pcr

 

 

mena-xe

left, moved away;

ma

 

*mene >> meni=to go;
mene-kül=escape

meth-lum

people
district, township
nation

dep
pcr, dhs
pa

 

Magy-ar= Hungarian < man < *mos
megye =district, province +lu-m
Magyar= Hungarian < man.

mex

people [x > dj]
league
nation
lady, queen

dep, pcr, ma
pcr
pa, ma
dhs

 

Magy-ar =Hungarian < man

Megye =county
Nagy-aszony=queen, lady;

mi

I

dep, pcr, pa, dhs

 

*ime > én =I, self

mini
mini

me
we

pcr, pa
ag97

 

*ime=I > én=I
*min > mi =we

min-rva

Minerva=goddess of wisdom

fh

 

*minia=young wife,woman +
*arwa=consider, to value, reason

mi-r

we (r=plural suffix)

dep

 

 mi =we

m_l-ac
mul-ax

votive offering (-ac = does)
votive offering

dep, pa
pcr, pa

 

 mulu=to offer to the gods/Ob Ugrian

m_l-aca
mul-x

good, beautiful
beautiful
nice

dhs
dep, pa
pa

 

?

m_l-ax

votive offering, dedication
good, beautiful (also mulch)

pcr
dhs

 

 mulu=to offer to the gods/Ob ugrian
?

mul

to offer
to make a vow

dep, pcr, pa
pa

 

 mulu=to offer to the gods/Ob Ugrian

mul-u

gift, present

pa

 

 mulu=to offer to the gods/Ob ugrian

mulu-vane-ce

gave, dedicated (-vane= deverbal suffix?)

dhs

 

 

mun

tomb
underground place

dep, pcr, pa
pcr

 

Manala =underground, underworld
in Finnish, manó=underworld demon/Hu

mun-is

to endow, to have the charge of

dep

 

 

mun-s-le

orders; munis, munise=to commend

az96

 

*mane == say , tell , legend , myth >>
mond=tell; mese=legend, tale

mur

to stay, to remain (intransitive), reside
to put, to depose (transitive)

dep, pcr, pa, ma
dep

 

mar-ad =remain < *more =to hold back
(-ad = verbal formative)

mur-s
mursh

urn
sarcophagus
coffin, urn

dep, pa
dep, pcr, pa
dhs

 

 mar-ad=remain (s)
?"the holder of the remains."

muta-na
mut-na

sarcophagus (-na= genetiveor locative)
sarcophagus
coffin, casket

dep, pcr, pa
pcr, pa
dhs

 

 mult=past, ceased >> deceised? + 
 -nak=genetive. (of the past)

mutu

thyme

dep, pa

 

 

mut-ina

example, sample

ma

 

mut-at-ni=to show;
minta=sample; <*muja=touch,taste

muv-alx

fifty (m~w) "five & ten"

pa
dhs

 

*witte=5  &
*luke=10


N

word

translation

source

 

Hungarian < Ugrian <FinnUgor

nac

then
how, as, because
why

dep
pcr, pa
pa

 

na! =well then what/how

mi-nek =what for, why

-nac

some kind of causative

ma

 

-nak =dative & genetive suffix.

nac, nac-na

big, large, grand (parent)

ma

 

nagy =big,grand,important<*nońće

nap

unit of measurement for surface

dep

 

 

nap-

folk, family, people

ma

 

nép=common people, folk

na-per

borderstone

dhs

 

na=stone in sumerian ??; per-em=border

naplan

kind of vase, wine vase

dep, pa

 

 

nav-t-lane

(one who) enjoys

ma

 

nev-et=laugh << *moke- =laugh k>v

-ne

locative suffix

ma

 

-n =locative suffix

ne-f_ts

nephew
grandson

dep, pa, dhs
dep, pcr, pa

 

  nagy +fi =grand +son

nene

wet-nurse

pcr

 

FU *n'iNe > néni =lady, woman

neri

water (m~n)

pcr

 

 *ńorε == wet , swampy >>nyir,
nyir-k-os = wet; 
nüre=wet /Chuvash

nes

dead person
to die
dead, defunct

dep
dep
pa

 

 nyu-g=to rest, be calm

nes-na

belonging to the dead (-na= genetive "for")

dep, pcr, pa

 

 

nes-l

observe

ma

 

 FU *näke > néz-ö =watch-er;

ne-tei

mother-in-law

dhs

 

 né=female + édes= immediate family

neth-shr-ac

haruspex ("seer")

dep, pa

 

 nézö =seer   (*t>z)

net-shvis

haruspex

dhs

 

 

numa

sign, notch, coinage >> numismatics

ma

 

UA/ *ńome >nyom=to press, press,  tracks
nyom-da=printing press
_im=sign /Turkish

num?

 ? >> Latin num-en =god spirit

fh

 

ObUgrian/ numi-tarem =god of heaven, the highes god;

nuna

offerings

dep, pcr

 

?

nur-ph
nur-ph-zi

nine L > R]
nine times

dep, pcr
pa

 

nyol-c =8
nyol-c szor=8 times.


P
 and F alternate in Etruscan, whereas in Hungarian lead P changed permanently
to become F or B while internal P often becomes V unless geminated (PP). Rare
exception to this are usually suspected to be late loan words or late reversions
to P from F.

word

translation

source

 

Hungarian < Ugrian <FinnUgor

paci

collected,quiet, peacefull >>
Latin pax=peace; pacatus ?passive?

 

 

FU *paćε = trust >>? biz=trust >>
béke =peace, bék-és=peacefull.

pala, vela-

round, turning  (p>v)

ma

 

 FU *pol-ke > pálya =circular, curved

pa-la

meadow < grass land;/Rhaetian origin;

az96

 

 FU *pi-me=grass  >> füv, fü =grass, herbe

pala, vela

roundness, rotundity; >>latin pala-tum

 

 

 FU * pol-ke =round, curved
>> pálya, bágy =circular track, curved

pal-mi-the

nervous, fright (-the=deverbal suffix)

az96

 

 FU *pele- = fear >> fél=to fear

papa

grandfather
ancestor, forefather

dep, pcr, pa
pa

 

 FU *apa>papa =father;
Hu/ nagyapa=gr father
opa =grandfather in Ugrian

pa-pacs

grandfather

pcr

 

 apa + bácsi ? =father "elder man"

papa-ls

of the grandfather
grandson
granddaughter

pcr, pa
pcr, dhs
dhs

 

 The elder male was the head of the clan and ruled it like a chief, including all of its belongings and members.  fö=chief/head

papn,pem

chief,greatest

ma

 

 FU *päήe >> fej, fö =head, chief

parx
parx-is

attribute of a magistracy

dep, pa
pa

 

 Hu/ biró =judge, parancs=command

par-la

kind of vase

dep, pa

 

 pár-ol-ó =steamer.

par-liu

to steam cook, boil

ma

 

pára=steam, pár-ol =steam cook, steams;
<<*pure =swirl, bubble, boil

par-nix

magistrate (grand judge?)

pcr

 

 biro =judge + nagy=big,grand, important

pat-na

kind of vase

dep, pcr, pa

 

 *pata > faz-ék  =cook, heat, pot

paz-u

head cheff < pas =cook + u =profession

ma

 

 *pata > föz-ö=the cook; föz=to cook

pa-va

young man, boy, the god Tages

 

 

*poi-ka=boy >> fiú
(-ka appears to be old FU adjectival suffix,
but appears to have become part of word)

penth-na
penth-una

stone
stone

pa
dep,pcr,pa,dhs

 

 pija = stone /Finn, Estonian, Yukagir
(probably originally a special sharp worked stone since Hungarian  fej-sze=ax, hatchet.

penthu-na
pent(u)-na
penz-nas

(stone?) roof
cover

ma

 

fed-él=roof ,cover (-el=deverbal)
<< *pente =cover

pen-za

lower part, lower piece

dhs

 

  *pes > ?ben, bel =in  > bel-sö=inner

pep-m

main, chief (-m=noun formative)

ma

 

 *pänke >> fö(v), fej >>föfö=the head of the chiefs, the absolute main.

pera

house

dhs

 

 porta?

pi_

at, in, through

pcr

 

be-, belsö, ben =inside, at;
bol=from out of, from

p_ru-mathi
p_ru-maths
p_ru-mats

great-grandson  (math a variant of max )
great-grandson
great-grandson

pcr
dhs
dep,pcr

 

 fi, fér-fi =boy, male~man
+ nagy=big, grand. (math > magy)

pru-m_ts

great-grandson (mats ~ max=grand) (m~n)

pa

 

 nagy=big grand  férfi=man,male

prux

lug

pcr

 

 

prux-um

pitcher
jug

dep, pa
pcr, dhs

 

 

puia

wife (also Pelazgian > Greek)
woman?

dep, pcr, dhs
dhs

 

 fele-ség =wife; fel-e=half of (a marriage) /Hu
bayan =woman, female/Turkish

pul

at, in, through

pcr

 

be- , -ba, -bel, -bol =inner, in, at

pul-um

hallway

ma

 

folyo-so=hallway < *pole = flow

*pulum

lead >> Latin p_lum-bum =lead (*w >p)

 

 

*wolne =lead, tin >> _on =tin

pul-um-x-va

stars [*w >p] ?um [*w >p]

dep, pcr, dhs, ma

 

*wälke > villág =light

pu-p_lu-na

people (?men & women)
[pru + puia+genetive]

pcr

 

 *poi(ka) >fiu=boy,man,male + fele-ség=wife

purx
pur-th(ne)

dictator

dep
pcr

 

par-ancs??=command,order; biró=judge;
bar=king in Sumerian?
Paris =the prince of Troy.

put


puth

to accomplish a ritual action
cup, vase
well
well, fountain
cup, vase  [ *w > p]

dep
pcr
pcr, pa
dep, pcr, pa
pcr

 

 perhaps a ritual cleansing.
 *pata  =pot, to cook  > faz-ék [p>f, t>z]
 
 
 vöd-ör =bucket.


PH (
?Greek phi)

word

translation

source

 

Hungarian < Ugrian <FinnUgor

ph-ersu

mask, actor (loanword to Latin as personna ) (-su=adj suffix)
face

dep, pa

 *pa>fö=head + arc=face

φex
φex-ucu

observe the rules,
(-uc =deverbal or noun formative)

ma

fegy- , fegy-elem=strictness, order, by the rules.


R
 represents mainly R, but this is often seen to alternate with L.

word

translation

source

 

Hungarian < Ugrian <FinnUgor

ar- 1
rapa

cut;
engraving, writing;

 

 

*roγe = cut , notch , mark by cutting
>> rov, rσ =runic writing, notched.

rax, rach

to prepare

pcr, az96

 

 *rakke = stack up , pile up , store >>
rak=to stack up

rabi-ma,
rebi-ma

pull,tear,tug (-ma? =adjectival or infinitive)

ma

 

*rēppe > rep-ed = crack, break open

ras-en-na

Etruscan, of Etruria

pcr

 

 *räćε > rész =region, territory, part

ras-na

Etruscan, of Etruria
public, belonging to the state

pcr, dhs

 

 *räćε > rész + népé =people of the region.
rész + nek =of the region

rash-na

Etruscan (-na= genetive "of")

pa

 

 rész=part, piece, >?individual person?

rash-na

region, province (-na=locative)

ma

 

*räćε == part , piece of , province
>> resz=region,province /Old Hu

rat-um

according to the law (?um=adj suffix)

pcr

 

rend =order, regularity, classes of society

ri-l

in the age of
at the age of, aged

dep, pa
pcr

 

 ör-eg=old

ril

spirit [ L > R]

ma

 

 *leile =warm air, spirit > lél-ek=soul

ru-max

Roman, from Rome "Ru-people"

pcr

 

 mache > magy-ar=Hungarian/Hu
mies=man /Finn

ruwa

brother
relative of the wife

dep, pcr, pa
ma

 

 ara < rapa =relative of the wife/Ugor


S

word

translation

source

 

Hungarian < Ugrian <FinnUgor

sa

four
self

pcr
dhs

 

 

sa, zal, zel

two

ma

 

*os’e =to divide (cut in two) >oszt/H

sac

to consecrate

dep, pcr, pa

 

 sacre is an IndoEuropean loan word

śacu, śaxu

head

 

 

*čeηkä = person , head , spirit-soul

śaca
śacvni

point;
sharp, pointed;

 

 

śoηke = (s8"ŋε) wedge , spike , nail >szeg

_sal

settle to rest, lodging

ma

 

 *as’e =to camp, settle> szál-(ás) =settle, lodging

sac-ni

sanctuary (-ni=genetive)
citizen

dep, pcr, pa
dhs

 

 suku =family /Finn,Estonian
 sáng=people/Sumerian

sac-ni-u

sanctuary (-ni=locative)

pa

 

 szök-ni=escape?

sac-ni-sa

to consecrate?

pcr

 

 sacre is an Indo European term.

sal

settle to rest,lodging; ite-sale=foundation

ma

 

 *aśe ==(or aśe-dh)to lay , place , set >>szál-ni

śale, śalie, śalvi
zilac

star, splendid

 

 

 *ćelke == sparkle 1, shine >>
csillog=shine, csillag=star.

san

ancestor

dep, pa, ma

 

*soηke =old person >> _agg/Hu

santi

kind of offering
priestly/funerary title

dep
pa

 

 szent = holy.?

sar

ten

pcr, dhs

 

 ezer=1000, szer,szor =to multiply

sat, sath

to put, to be put

pcr
dep, pcr, pa

 

 csat =to clamp together, clasp, to join.

s_ce

eat

ma

 

 eszik=eating < *seghe

scu-na

place, room (-na=locative)

dhs

 

 

se-alx

forty (?20)

pcr

 

 2 & *luke=10

sec

daughter

dep, pcr, pa

 

 szüz /Hu
 *s'es'/Sumer & Ob Ugrian

sel

to do, to make

dep

 

 

sex

daughter

pcr, pa, dhs

 

 szüz =virgin girl/Hu <<*śüće
śčś =maiden /Vogul

sem-niśs-i

eyes which see

ma

 

 *silma > szem=eye, néz=see

semph

eight?
seven?

dep, pa
dep, pcr, pa,ma

 


Ugrian septe or sette> hét.

semp-alx

seventy?
eighty?

dep, pcr, pa
pa

 

 

s-nena-th

maid
mate/companion

dep, pcr, pa, dhs
dep, pcr, pa

 

 menye =daughter in law
menyecske=young wife

snuiaph

sacred offering
as much, as many as

dep
dhs

 

 

sp-an

lowland

dep

 

 süp-ed=to sink down

span-ti

kind of vase
dish/plate

dep, pa
pa, dhs

 

 

spet

to drink

dep, pa

 

 szip-, sziv =to take a sip, to suck;

spur

city [*w>p]

dep, pcr, pa, dhs

 

*as'e=settlement >szálás +  vár =fort > city

s-pur

the common people

ma

 

*porε = the lower ranked clans >>
 par-aszt= peasant

s-pura-na

civic, to do with the city [*w>p]

pcr, pa

 

 vár-né-p =the common people of the fort/city

s-pure-ni

civic, to do with the city [ -ni= genetic sfx "of"]

dep, pcr, pa

 

 vár-nak=for/of the fort/city

s-puri-aze

public

dep, pa

 

város-i =of the city. + össz= total,together;

sr-an
sr-en

ornament, figure (-an=deverbal )

pcr
dhs

 

 *sir > ir =write, decorate  
(-na, -ény etc deverbal)

s-rancz-a

upper part/piece (-ra=sublaitive "onto, upon")

dhs

 

 *räćε > rész =part, segment, piece

s-renc

above, upper

dhs

 

 rá, ra =sublative suffix (onto )

sr-enc-ve

decorated with figures (-ve= formative suffix)

pcr

 

 *sir > ir = to write, to decorate;  ir-va

su-c

to declare

pcr

 

 szól ás=to state, szav,szó=word;

sup-l-u

the whipping person; -u =participle;

ma

 

 *ćappe > supál-ó=the whipper;

sup-l-u

 piper, flautist > Latin subulo

 dep, pcr, pa, gm97

 

 sip-ol-ó=piper;  sip=pipe,whistle; /Hu

su-t
su-th

to stay, to place + t=locative
to stay, to place + th= locative

pcr, pa
dep, pcr, pa

 

*aśe ==to lay , place, to settle, to camp
> szál- =temporary settlement.

su-th

sheep

az96

 

*use =sheep >> öz =deer.

su-thi

tomb, grave    (th ~x  has examples)

dep, pcr

 

 *suGer > syher>suer > sír =grave

suthi-na

sepulchral

dep, pcr

 

 *suGer=grave >> syher>suer > sír

sup-l-u

piper, flautist

dep, pcr, pa

 

 sip-ol-ó =the piper, flutist

s-val

to live
alive

dep, pcr, pa, dhs
pcr, pa

 

 *wole > vala=to be, to exist, is

sve

similarly  (su > sve?)

pcr

 

-os=suffix "like/similar" , adjectival suffix


SH

word

translation

source

 

Hungarian < Ugrian <FinnUgor

sha

six?
four?

dep, pa, dhs
pa

 

a variant of two.

śaca
śacvni

point
sharp,pointed

ma
ma

 

szeg=nail, wedge, /HU
*śoηke =wedge , spike , nail /FU

shal-tuc
zilac-al

shine
stars

ma

 

csill-og=shine,
csill-ag=star

shel-ace

give back his/her life (-ace= give,make)

ma

 

szül= birth/life <*śulε + make (-og, -ács)

shar

ten

dep, pa

 

 ezer =1000

shel 2

the edge, boundary

ma

 

*śel >szél = edge, rim,border >>

she-alx

forty
sixty

pa
dhs

 

 4+ *luke=10 > 40

shians

beginning, scheme, plan (L <> N)

dhs

 

 áskál =to scheme

shr-an
shr-en

figure

dep, pa
pa

 

 

shr-en-cve

decorated

dep

 

 *sir > ir =write, painted, decorated

śuci,
śuc-ic,
suc-ix

piece, part

az96

 


*śakkε = piece , portion >> szak, szak-asz

shun-u

musician

ma

 

*sōne, s'one =tendon,string
>> _in=tendon > zene=music

śu-re

branch

az96

 

*säηe = branch >> ág

shuntheruza

round clay box

dhs

 

 

shur-nu

order?, testament?

pcr

 

 szerv(-ez) =organ, organize,

shuth

to put

dhs

 

 csat-ol=to tie to, to clasp, to join.

shuth-i

tomb

pa, dhs

 

 söt-ét=dark <Ugrian & ?Cimmerian

shuti-na

sepulchral
grave gift (-na=genetive "of")

pa
dhs

 

söt-ét-nek=for/of  the dark
Cimmerian  Sanda=name of the god of the underworld, "darkness".  In Lycian the god Sanda is linked to darkness.

shuθ-l

bone (-l=genetive)

ma

 

csont=bone; << ćutte = ankle bone

shacu,
shaxu

head

ma

 

_agy=brain << *čeηkä = person ,
head, Finn henki; Sumerian sang


T
 is the same but in Hungarian later in its development it became voiced also
as d, especially if preceeded by a nasal ( m or n). The T in intervocalic places
changes to a Z  in Hungarian, which is uncommon in other FU languages, unless tt.

word

translation

source

 

Hungarian < Ugrian <FinnUgor

ta

this

dep, pcr, pa, dhs

 

 *et >> ez =this

t-am

to build (-am=infinitive)  [v >m? or infinitiv]

dep

 

 *teke > tev, te-ni =to do, to make (m>n)–ni=infinitive suffix (to)

tam-era

type/level of priest
name of a magistracy
grave chamber (er=deverbal suffix)

dep
pcr, pa
dhs, ma

 

 FU *temε- > tem-et-ö=cemetary, to burry, to stuff into. (-et=deverbal suffix)

tam-na

horse (-na=?genetive)

dep, pa

 

 ?dhama = reindeer > luw/Ug = horse> ló(v) /Hu

tana-sa

actor

dep, pa

 

tan-it-o=a teacher (plays originally thougt things, stories, morality etc.)

tan-asha

family member, relative
(-ash=deadjectival suffix)

ma

 

 FU *tuηe > tag=member
+ ság <saNke =deajectival & collective suffix. " tag-ság"
Finnish sukku =family member

ten

to practice a public office
to act as

dep, pa
pcr

 

teni =to act, to do

tepa

 hill

 

 

 *tompe =hill/FU > domb/Hu

θ_r-ama

storage +woman

ma

 

tár=storage + *ema =mother,wife

tes

to take care of

pcr

 

tesz =does

tesh-am

burial ( -am=infinitive?)

dhs

 

 *teke > tesz =to place, put (into)
+ ni=infinitive ?

teta

grandmother

pcr, dhs

 

tata=grandpa;  teita=mother/Finn

teta-ls

grandchild (in relation to grandmother)

dhs

 

 

tev

to put, to place, to set
to show
to see

dep, pcr
pcr, pa
pa

 

tev-ék-eny =to be doing, making, be active

teva-ra-th

watcher, onlooker
umpire/referee/arbiter

dep, pcr, pa
dep, pcr, pa, dhs

 

 *ante > id-éz =gaze, conjure +
-rá=upon (sublaitive)
–t=accusative ?

tesh

to bring
to cure

dep
pa

 

 tál-TOSH = head shaman, medicine man, most knowledgable << FU

tesh-am

to cure (-am=infinitive)

pa

 

 shaman

tes-inth

curator, caretaker

dep, pa, pcr

 

  tesz =does & int-éz-ö=one who takes care of

teur

judgement, panel, award

dhs

 

tör-vény =law  (-vény= formative suffix)

_t-ez-an

way, road

dhs

 

ut-az-ni=to travel; út=road,highway

-ti, -θi

locative, Uni-al-θi=from Uni's (temple)

ma

 

-tt =locative suffix

tin
tin-ia

day

dep, pcr, pa
dhs

 

dél=noon, midday (L~N)
TÜN-dök-öl=to shine briliantly.

tin-sc-vil

consecrated objects

dhs

 

 

tiu
tiv(r)

moon, month

pcr, pa
dep, pa, pcr, dhs

 

idö=time from word for sun

tm-ia

holy building, temple (-ia=it, accusative?)

dep, pcr, pa, dhs

 

 teme-tö=cemetary

tn-am

see (am=infinitive suffix?)

pcr

 

 

tre-pu

workman, carpenter (teraza=worker?)

dhs

 

 teraza=worker/Mari + *puwe >fa=wood

tr-in

to plead, to supplicate, to invoke
(-in=dative "for")

dep, pcr, pa

 

 tor-nak= for the wake (for the dead)

tru-na

power, rule

dep, pa

 

  tör-vény =law

trut

to do a sacred action [ L > R]
libation
lightning bolt?

dep, pa
pcr
dhs

 

  tált-os =shaman (of highest kind)

truth

to cast, to throw [L > R]

dhs

 

  tol-ot =shoved, pushed

trut-nut
trut-nuth

fortune teller, oracle [ L > R]
priest, seer

dep, pa
pcr, dhs

 

  tált-os =shaman tál=to know
*nate > néz =to watch, to see.

tunur

one at a time, singly

pcr

 

 

tuth-in

public

dep, pa

 

 dentu = nation /Thracian
  dentu magyaria =the old Magyar country.

tuti
tuthi

community, state
to give

pcr,dep, pa
dep

 

dentu =community /Thracian
dentu magyaria=old Hungary before 896

tul

stone
boundary

pcr
ma

 

?
tul =distant, telek=a measured land for farm,home.

tul-ar

stone
border, limits (boundary stone?)
boundary

dep
dep, pa, dhs, ma
ma

 

?t>s  szil-ánk=sharp edged stone
?       szil-ár-d =tough, dense.
tel-ek=(farm) land, settlement land; tul= distant;

tular-u

border, limits  (-u=dimminutive noun suffix)

pa

 

  tul=beyond t>s szél=edge,boundary

tu-pi

stone
punishment

pa
dhs

 

 

tur

to give, to dedicate

dep, pcr, pa

 

 ObUgrian/ *tir =ceremonial place (for an event)  >> tér ?=plaza

tur

to grab, hold, to offer

ma

 

  *tarttu- > tart=to hold, keep  

tur-a

incense

pcr

 

 

tura-ne

July, goddess of origin

dep, pa
ma

 

 ter-em-tö=originator,creator
<<Tor-em =god of heaven

tur-za

offer, offering (-za=adjectival suffix)

dep, pcr, pa

 

  tor =funeral feast and in old days gift to the deceased to be used in afterlife.
tor-os=adj to do with funeral feast.

tur

to grab, hold, to offer

 

 

*tar-ttε- =get stuck, stick > tart =to hold, keep.

tur-n

given, offered, dedicated

dep, pa

 

  tor-nak =of the funeral wake

tus

niche
coffin, place in vault

dep, pcr, pa
dhs

 

 tás-ka=case, briefcase, container.

tus-na

swan

dhs

 

 tuz-ok=bustard bird

tuthi-u

pledge, vow

dhs

 

 

tuthi-n

of the state, public (-na, -ni=genetive)

pcr

 

 dentu (see above)

tuth-in

public (-na, -ni =genetive

dep, pa

 

 dentu (see above)

tuthi-na

of the state, public (-na=genetive "of")
the people
votive object

pcr
pcr
pcr, dhs

 

 

_tv

to show, to see

pa

 

id-éz=to conjure up a vision < *ante

 

TH

can represent a simple t or more likely the palatized T or Ch.
It shouldn’t be assumed to be used just as it was in Greek as an aspirated t,
which didn’t exist in FinnUgor, however an aspirated d did exist.

word

translation

source

 

Hungarian < Ugrian <FinnUgor

thaf-na

cup

pcr

 

 

tham

to build, to lay, to found

pcr, pa

 

 *teke >>tev >te-ni =to do, to act (on) /Hu

tham-na

horse

pa

 

at =horse /Turkic (m>v common)

θan-asa 2

teacher, subject

ma

 

UA/ *tuna =learn > tan=subject, tan-it=teach, tan-ul=learn

thap

to consecrate, to dedicate

dep, pa

 

 

thap-na

vase (for offerings?) (-na=nominative)

pcr, pa

 

 

θap-ic-un,
θap-in-tas

to step on,
trample

ma

 

 *tappa= trample > tap-os, tip-or
tap-in-t =touches

thaur

tomb

dep, pa

 

tár=storage, container

thaur-x

sepulchral, funerary (-xi = deverbal)

dep, pcr, pa

 

 *tir=ceremonial place > tor =funeral ceremony, wake

theur-u
thevr-u

bull
bull (Latin cervus)

dep
pa,dhs

 

 A loan from Semitic "tor"
t>s szarvas=horned animal

_t-hes

to bring

dep

 

 ide hoz =bring here
(i-t=here, i-de=to here)

thes-an

dawn, sunrise
morning, day (-an =time locative)

dep, dhs
pa, dhs

 

Kal-TES=goddes of dawn, birth  /ObUgrian
> tüz= fire,light; + an =time locative

thesh-vi-ti

to/in the East (-vi=in +-ti is a locative)

dhs

 

 Kal-TES=goddess of dawn, i.e

thez

to sacrifice, to make an offering

dep, pcr, pa

 

 adás =the act of giving, tesz=to do

θez, θes,
θa-m, θe-n

to make, to do, to build

ma

 

 *teke > te-sz=does, doing
te-ni=to do

thi

pronoun

pcr

 

 te =you (familiar)

θil-en, θelu

to fill, pour full

ma

 

 *telke>fill, full , complete time >
tele =full , töl-t =to fill

thin-a

kind of vase
ewer

dep, pcr, pa
dhs

 

 tány-ér =plate, dish
(L~N) tál=serving plate << FU

threz-u

servant

ma

 

 Mari/ tereze=worker

th_ru-na

power, rule, government

pa

 

tör-vény =law/Hu; töre=custom/Turk

thu

two
one

dep
pcr, pa, dhs

 

If its two then it’s a loan of duo, else
it=one /Ugrian, Ostyak

thucte

name of month
in July/August?

pcr
dhs

 

 

thu-i

here, now
inside

pcr, pa
dhs

 

itt=here, ide=to here
-tt=locative suffix.

thuni

before   [*N>n]

pcr

 

 teg-na-p =yesterday  [N>g]
Ugor *naj>day,sun, fire

thun-xul-tha

step? (as in clan thunxultha "step son")
private

dhs
dhs

 

 tag=member + kel=become

thu-n-z

once

pcr, pa

 

Ob Ugrian it=one + szer=time

θuś-ti, tus-ti

in fire, fire (-ti =locative ?in)

ma

 

 *täwte > tüz =fire + tt=locative (at)
or –t=accusative.

thuv

to erect

dep

 

 tev-és =to act, to do, to make

thu_-va

brother

pa

 

 test-vér =sibling "body & blood"

thva

interior, inner (-va =inessive "in" )

dhs

 

 


U

word

translation

source

 

Hungarian < Ugrian <FinnUgor

ulpaia
upaia

kind of vase, jug < ?lupa
kind of vase

dep,pcr, pa
pa

 

 öbl-ös =very hollow,large volume.

u-na

flowing stream ( *ju > _u) +locative?

dhs

 

 *jo(ke) > jó =river suffix , river

u-ne

then

pcr

 

 -en =time locative suffix

us-il
az

sun (-il=deverbal suffix )  OR sol=sun.
to burn, sear 

dep, pcr, pa
ma , az 96

 

 *äsε == to heat,hot > izó=fierry hot
+ ol=deverbal.

uśi-śa

understood, heard

 

 

*oća = (also ońća) be able to >
esz-es=smart, brainy.


ush-il

 

sun (?t>s)
south
noon

dhs
dhs
dhs

 


 izó =fierry hot

us_l-ane

at noon (-ane=time locative suffix)

pcr

 

 dél-en =at noon or in the south

ushi, ushie
uśiśa

to hear, understand, obey
"understood, obeyed, heard

ma
az 96

 

 *uće =wise,aware >>ész-lel =sense; esz-es=smart

ut

to give
to carry out, perform

dep, pa
pcr, ma

 

 *amte > ad=give 
 te-ni =to do


V
  represents not only V but is a natural evolution of P>F>V.

word

translation

source

 

Hungarian < Ugrian <FinnUgor

vac-al

libation

pcr, dep, pa

 

ivás-al =with a drink/libation
(-al,-val,-el,-vel=instrumental)

vati-exe

with a leader, by leading

 

 

*wetä = (wiδa) lead, steer, lead to
>> vez-et =lead, vez-ιr=leader (-er=deverb)

velc-it-na
vel-it-na

March (*p>v?)

pcr, pa
dep, pa

 

belsö-idö =internal/central time (month)

v_r-aθ

to strike down

ma

 

*bhere == to conquer , to strike , to beat , to crack >> ver=to conquer, beat + üt=to hit.
Turkic vars, beru

vati-exe

with a leader, by leading
(-exe=instrumental ‘with")

ma

 

*wetä =lead,steer > vez-et =steer;
vez-ér =leader;

ver-pe =

braid

az96

 

*wora = sew , stitch , cobble > varr

vers

fire (*p>v?)

pcr, dep, pa

 

vörös= scarlet, veres=bloody;
 w>p piros=red, pirit=to sear, singe,toast;

ver-tun

type of vase

dep, pa

 

 veres+tány-ér =scarlet/blood + dish;

vin-um

wine

pcr, dep, pa, dhs

 

 

vels, vels-u

inner, central [*p>v]

ma

 

*pels > belsö=inner

vei(s)

lattice like weir for catching trout

ma

 

* wāće =lattice >>
vejsze=fish weir; vįz =lattice.

ver-u
veitha
auri-na

guard (-u=profession or participle)
carefull
town (source of Latin Urbs)

ma

 

*wara = wait , guard > _ör =guard
vigy-áz=carefull, watch out
vár-os=city; old Hungarian uru-as

vuisi

sharp

ma

 

*waηśe >>vés, váj, vág =cut,hew


X "kh", when used internal to the word it becomes linked to Hungarian gy, g.

word

translation

source

 

Hungarian < Ugrian <FinnUgor

xulix-na

cup

pa

kulacs =canteen

 

xur
xur-al

time
in/at time (-al =instrumental suffix)

ma
ma

kor =age, time of day, time +al=instrumental suffix.
kor-án =early; <

 

_xi_-a

doorkeeper

az

*aηa = opening >> αj >> aj-to=door (t=deverbal)

 


Y did not exist in Etruscan, and the sound is typically symbolized with J in most European
languages.

Z can be linked to ch in Finn Ugor, which can become cs, sz or gy in Hungarian.  
The situation is very similar in Etruscan. The gy however may alternate with j.
Because there is no J in the Etruscan alphabet or that it was lost, this symbol does double duty to fill the void.

word

translation

source

 

Hungarian < Ugrian <FinnUgor

zane-na

cup (-na = nominative?)

pcr

 

 csan-ak =a small drinking bowl, goblet.

za-ve-na

drinking vase (-ve=inessive or deverbal)

dep, pa

 

isz=drink + vo=participle >> ivó=drinking

_za-thrum

twenty (? thrum?)

dep, pcr, pa, dhs

 

 husz =twenty

zal

two

dep, pa, dhs

 

szel=to slice, cut (into two?)

zar

to make rigid, hard

AZ96

 

*śorε == tight , become narrow
>> szor-os=tight

zat-lath

companion

dep, pa, pha

 

csat-lo-s =an ally, one who joins with you. csat=a clasp. <<FU *ćette

zel-ar

niche

dhs

 

 

zeri

rite
legal action
serene, unclouded
free (person), accessible (water)

dep, pcr, pa,ma
pcr, ma
dhs
dhs, ma

 

szer =religious rite; zör=noisy
szerv=method, order, organ
szer-tart-ás =ceremony
szer-ény =simple, unpresumptious

zil

to practise a magistracy
to rule, magistrate

dep
pcr

 

Gyula =commander in chief, highest power in old Hungarian.
(Etr z often represents cs or gy)

zila-c
zila

magistracy
PRINCEPS CIVITATIS
‘chief of the Etruscan community’

dep, pcr

ma

 

Gyula = the highest leader, ruler and the head of the military./ Old Hu. jula/Kazar, Ephtalite Hun
–ás =adjectival suffix.

zila-th

cultural functionary

dhs

 

 Gyula =commander in chief /Old Hungarian.

zic
zix-u

zix-u

to paint, to write, to incise

to paint, to write, to incise, chisel
book?letter, scribe,writer (-u=participle)

dep, ma
pcr,pa, ma
dhs

 

gyök-(ik) =to incise, to mark with
pierce, stabb and scratches.
gyök-ö =the incisor << *djh-okkε

zina-ce

produced (pottery)

dhs

 

csin-ál+t=deverbal =made

zin

to make, to do

ma

 

csin-ál=make, to produce/Hu < ??Slav

ziv

having lived

pcr

 

szív =to suck, to breathe air

ziv-a

having lived ( -a=past tense suffix)
the dead, deceased
relationships, kinship

dep
pcr
dhs

 

-a=the old past tense suffix, which has been replaced after middle ages with t

zin

to make, to do

 

 

csin-ál=to make, to do (-ál frequentive)

ziv-al
ziv-as

heart, body part; ( -al =?deverbal suffix)
heart, spirit

ma

 

*śidjhäme =heart, inner organ >> szív=heart , suck, pump /Hu
sziv-es=kind, helpful (-es=adj. suffix)
iz=spirit /Hu (-el=deverbal suffix)

zix-ux-e

was written, incised or carved

dhs

 

 gyökö=incise+hajd-an =in the past

zus-le

offer, victim, animal (-le=deverbal)

pa